大多数读者都了解美国社会中的种族和意义。种族指的是我们如何通过肤色和表型对人进行分类 – 某些物理面部特征在某种程度上由特定群体共享。大多数人在美国都会认识到的常见种族类别包括黑人，白人，亚洲人，拉美裔人和美洲印第安人。但棘手的是，绝对没有种族的生物决定因素。相反，社会学家认识到我们对种族和种族类别的看法是不稳定和变化的社会结构，并且可以看出随着时间的推移，这些结构在历史和政治事件方面发生了变化。我们也认识到种族在很大程度上由上下文定义。例如，“黑色”意味着美国与巴西和印度的不同，这种意义上的差异体现在社会经验的真正差异上。在一个种族群体中，可能有几个种族群体。例如，白人美国人可能认为是各种族群的一部分，包括德裔美国人，波兰裔美国人和爱尔兰裔美国人等。美国境内其他族裔群体的例子包括但不限于克里奥尔人，加勒比裔美国人，墨西哥裔美国人和阿拉伯裔美国人。对于大多数人来说，种族可能更难以解释。与基于肤色和表型主要看到和理解的种族不同，种族不一定提供视觉提示。相反，它基于共同的共同文化，包括语言，宗教，艺术，音乐和文学，规范，习俗，实践和历史等元素。然而，仅仅因为该群体的共同国家或文化起源，不存在种族群体。他们因其独特的历史和社会经验而发展，成为该群体民族认同的基础。例如，在移民美国之前，意大利人并不认为自己是一个有共同兴趣和经历的独特群体。然而，移民的过程以及他们在新的家园中作为一个群体所面临的经历，包括歧视，创造了一种新的种族身份。早期美国社会学家W.E.B. du Bois在“黑人民俗的灵魂”中提出了“双重意识”的概念，为种族和民族社会学提供了最重要和最持久的理论贡献之一。这个概念指的是白人社会，空间和少数民族中有色人种有通过自己的眼睛看待自己的经历，以及通过白人多数人的眼睛看待自己是“他者”的方式。这导致身份形成过程的冲突且经常令人痛苦的经历。由社会学家Howard Winant和Michael Omi开发的种族形成理论将种族视为一种不稳定的，不断发展的社会结构，与历史和政治事件联系在一起。他们断言，寻求定义种族和种族类别的不同“种族项目”正在进行持续竞争，以赋予种族主导意义。他们的理论阐明了种族如何成为并继续成为一种政治上有争议的社会结构，在这种结构上获得权利，资源和权力。由社会学家Joe Feagin开发的系统性种族主义理论是一项重要且广泛使用的种族和种族主义理论，自BlackLivesMatter运动兴起以来，它已经获得了特别的关注。费根的理论植根于历史文献，断言种族主义是建立在美国社会的基础之上的，现在它存在于社会的各个方面。将经济财富和贫困，政治和剥夺权利，学校和媒体等机构中的种族主义与种族主义的假设和思想联系起来，Feagin的理论是理解美国种族主义起源，今天如何运作以及反种族主义活动家的路线图可以做到打击它。
Most readers understand the race and meaning in American society. Race refers to how we classify people by skin color and phenotype – some physical facial features are shared to some extent by specific groups. Common racial categories that most people recognize in the United States include blacks, whites, Asians, Hispanics, and American Indians. But the tricky thing is that there is absolutely no biological determinant of race. Instead, sociologists recognize that our perceptions of racial and racial categories are unstable and changing social structures, and it can be seen that these structures have changed in history and political events over time. We also recognize that race is largely defined by context. For example, “black” means that the United States is different from Brazil and India, and this difference is reflected in the real difference in social experience. There may be several ethnic groups in a racial group. For example, white Americans may be considered part of a variety of ethnic groups, including German-Americans, Polish-Americans, and Irish-Americans. Examples of other ethnic groups in the United States include, but are not limited to, Creoles, Caribbean Americans, Mexican Americans, and Arab Americans. For most people, race may be more difficult to explain. Unlike races that are primarily seen and understood based on skin color and phenotype, race does not necessarily provide visual cues. Instead, it is based on a common common culture, including language, religion, art, music and literature, norms, customs, practices and history. However, there are no ethnic groups simply because of the common national or cultural origin of the group. They developed because of their unique history and social experience and became the basis of the national identity of the group. For example, before immigrating to the United States, Italians did not consider themselves to be a unique group with common interests and experiences. However, the process of immigration and the experiences they face as a group in their new home, including discrimination, have created a new ethnic identity. The early American sociologist W.E.B. du Bois proposed the concept of “double consciousness” in the “spirit of the black people’s custom”, providing one of the most important and lasting theoretical contributions to racial and ethnic sociology. This concept refers to the white society, where the colored people of space and ethnic minorities have their own eyes to see their own experiences, and the way through which the majority of white people see themselves as “others”. This leads to conflicting and often painful experiences in the identity formation process. The theory of racial formation developed by sociologists Howard Winant and Michael Omi sees race as an unstable, evolving social structure linked to historical and political events. They assert that different “ethnic projects” seeking to define racial and racial categories are continuing to compete to give ethnic leadership. Their theory clarifies how race becomes and continues to be a politically controversial social structure in which to acquire rights, resources and power. The systematic racist theory developed by sociologist Joe Feagin is an important and widely used theory of race and racism that has received special attention since the rise of the BlackLivesMatter movement. Fagan’s theory is rooted in historical literature, asserting that racism is based on American society and now exists in all aspects of society. Linking economic wealth and poverty, politics and deprivation of rights, racism and racism assumptions and ideas in institutions such as schools and media, Feagin’s theory is to understand the origins of American racism, how it works today and the activities of anti-racist activists The road map can do it against it.