虽然性取向是在情感上或浪漫上被其他人吸引,但“性别认同”描述了一个人自己的男性或女性内心感受(男性或女性);或两者兼而有之(性别)。一个人的性别认同可以与出生时分配的生理性别相同或不同。此外,“性别焦虑”的人可能会强烈地感到他们真正的性别认同与出生时分配给他们的生理性别不同。简单来说,性取向是关于我们想要浪漫或性行为的人。性别认同是指我们认为自己是谁,我们如何选择表达这些感受,以及我们希望如何被其他人感知和对待。根据最近的医学和心理学研究,最终形成成人性取向的情感,浪漫和性吸引的感觉通常出现在6至13岁之间。然而,吸引力的感觉可以在任何年龄发展和变化,即使没有任何年龄。以前的性经历。例如,从性生活中实行独身或禁欲的人仍然知道他们的性取向和性别认同。男同性恋,女同性恋和双性恋者在确定性取向方面可能会遵循不同的时间表,而不是异性恋者。有些人在与他人发生性关系之前很久就认定他们是女同性恋,男同性恋或双性恋。另一方面,有些人直到与同性,异性或两者发生性关系之后才确定他们的性取向。正如APA指出的那样,歧视和偏见会使女同性恋,男同性恋和双性恋者难以接受他们的性取向身份,从而减缓这一过程。人们不确定自己的性取向并不罕见。有些人终其一生都没有确定自己的确切性取向。心理学家强调,“质疑”一个人的性取向既不常见,也不是一种精神疾病。吸引力的感觉在一生中转变的趋势被称为“流动性”。临床心理学史上几乎没有人质疑导致个体性取向的问题。虽然科学家普遍认为,自然(我们的遗传特征)和培养(我们获得或学习的特征)都发挥着复杂的作用,但各种性取向的确切原因仍然定义不明确,甚至不太了解。尽管对该问题进行了多年的临床研究,但尚未确定发展特定性取向的单一原因或原因。相反,研究人员认为,每个人的情感吸引力都受到遗传优势,荷尔蒙,社会和环境因素的复杂组合的影响。虽然没有发现任何单一因素,但遗传自父母的基因和激素的可能影响表明,性取向的发展可能在出生前就已开始。一些研究表明,接触父母对性取向的态度可能会影响一些孩子如何尝试自己的性行为和性别认同。曾经有人认为,男同性恋,女同性恋和双性恋性取向是“精神障碍”的类型,通常是由童年时期的性虐待和成年人关系困扰引起的。然而,这被证明是错误的,主要基于对所谓的“替代”生活方式的错误信息和偏见。最近的研究表明,任何性取向与心理障碍之间都没有关系

澳大利亚国立大学心理学Assignment代写:心理学层面看性取向

While sexual orientation is about being emotionally or romantically attracted to other people, “gender identity” describes a person’s own internal feelings of being male or female (masculine or feminine); or a blend of both or neither (genderqueer). A person’s gender identity can be the same or different from their biological sex assigned at birth. In addition, people who are “gender dysphoric” may feel strongly that their true gender identity differs from the biological sex assigned to them at birth. In simpler terms, sexual orientation is about who we want to be with romantically or sexually. Gender identity is about who we feel we are, how we choose to express those feelings, and how we wish to be perceived and treated by other people. According to the most recent medical and psychological research, the feelings of emotional, romantic, and sexual attraction that eventually form adult sexual orientation usually emerge between ages 6 and 13. However, feelings of attraction can develop and change at any age, even without any prior sexual experiences. For example, people who practice celibacy or abstinence from sex are still aware of their sexual orientation and gender identity. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual people may follow different timelines in determining their sexual orientation than heterosexual people. Some decide they are lesbian, gay, or bisexual long before actually having sexual relationships with others. On the other hand, some do not determine their sexual orientation until after having had sexual relationships with persons of the same sex, opposite sex, or both. As the APA points out, discrimination and prejudice can make it hard for lesbian, gay, and bisexual people to accept their sexual orientation identities, thus slowing the process. It is not uncommon for people to be unsure of their sexual orientation. Some people live their entire lifetimes without ever becoming certain of their exact sexual orientation. Psychologists emphasize that “questioning” one’s sexual orientation is neither uncommon nor a form of mental illness. The tendency for feelings of attraction to shift throughout one’s life is known as “fluidity.” Few questions in the history of clinical psychology have been as deeply debated as what causes an individual’s sexual orientation. While scientists generally agree that both nature (our inherited traits) and nurture (our acquired or learned traits) play complex roles, the exact reasons for the various sexual orientations remain poorly defined and even less well understood. Despite years of clinical research on the question, no single cause or reason for developing a particular sexual orientation has been identified. Instead, researchers believe that each person’s feelings of emotional attraction are influenced by a complex combination of genetic dominance, hormonal, social, and environmental factors. While no single factor has been identified, the possible influence of genes and hormones inherited from our parents indicates that the development of sexual orientation may begin before birth. Some studies have shown that exposure to their parents’ attitude toward sexual orientation might affect how some children experiment with their own sexual behavior and gender identity. It was once believed that gay, lesbian, and bisexual sexual orientations were types of “mental disorders” often caused by sexual abuse during childhood and troubled adult relationships. However, this has been shown to be false and based mainly on misinformation and prejudice against so-called “alternative” lifestyles. The most recent research shows no relationship between any of the sexual orientations and psychological disorders.

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