行为主义是可以通过可观察的行为（行为）客观地研究人类或动物心理学的理论。这个研究领域是对19世纪心理学的反应，它使用对自己的思想和感情进行自我检查来检验人类和动物的心理。行为主义是人类或动物心理学可以通过可观察的行为（行为）而不是无法观察到的思想和情感来客观研究的理论。行为主义的有影响力的人物包括心理学家John B. Watson和BF Skinner，他们分别与经典调节和操作性条件反射有关。在经典条件反射中，动物或人类学会将两种刺激相互联系起来。这种类型的调节涉及非自愿反应，例如生物反应或情绪反应。在操作性条件反射中，动物或人类通过将其与后果联系起来来学习行为。这可以通过积极或消极的强化或惩罚来实现。尽管行为主义不再是心理学中的主要思维方式，但在今天的课堂上仍然可以看到操作性条件。行为主义是对心理主义的反应，是十九世纪下半叶心理学家使用的主观研究方法。在心灵主义中，通过类比和研究自己的思想和感受来研究心智 – 这个过程称为内省。行为主义者认为心理学家的观察过于主观，因为他们在个体研究者中存在显着差异，往往会导致矛盾和不可复制的发现。行为主义有两种主要类型：方法行为主义，受约翰·B·沃森的作品影响，以及由心理学家BF斯金纳开创的激进行为主义。 1913年，心理学家约翰·B·沃森（John B. Watson）发表了一篇被认为是早期行为主义宣言的论文：“心理学作为行为主义者的观点。”在本文中，沃森拒绝了心理学家的方法并详细阐述了他的心理学应该是什么的哲学：科学行为，他称之为“行为主义”。值得注意的是，尽管沃森经常被称为行为主义的“创始人”，但他绝不是第一个批评内省的人，也不是第一个支持客观学习方法的人。心理学。然而，在沃森的论文之后，行为主义逐渐占据了主导地位。到20世纪20年代，许多知识分子，包括哲学家和后来的诺贝尔奖获得者伯特兰罗素等备受好评的人物，都认识到屈臣氏哲学的重要性。在沃森之后的行为主义者中，也许最着名的是BF斯金纳。与当时许多其他行为主义者相比，斯金纳的观点主要集中在科学解释而不是方法上。斯金纳认为，可观察的行为是看不见的心理过程的外在表现，但研究那些可观察的行为更为方便。他的行为主义方法是了解动物行为与环境之间的关系。经典调节与行为主义者相信人类通过调节来学习行为，调节将环境中的刺激（例如声音）与响应（例如人类听到声音时的行为）联系起来。行为主义的关键研究证明了两种类型的调节之间的区别：经典调节，与Ivan Pavlov和John B. Watson等心理学家相关，以及与BF Skinner相关的操作性调节。巴甫洛夫的狗实验是一项广为人知的实验，涉及狗，肉和铃声。在实验开始时，狗会被提供肉，这将导致他们垂涎欲滴。然而，当他们听到铃声时，却没有。对于实验的下一步，狗在他们被带来食物之前听到了铃声。随着时间的推移，狗知道铃声意味着食物，所以当他们听到铃声时他们会开始垂涎欲滴 – 尽管他们之前没有对铃声作出反应。通过这个实验，狗逐渐学会将铃声与食物联系起来，即使他们之前没有对铃声作出反应。巴甫洛夫的狗实验证明了经典调节：动物或人类学习将两种先前无关的刺激相互联系的过程。巴甫洛夫的狗学会了将一种刺激（对食物的气味垂涎欲滴）的反应与一种“中性”刺激联系在一起，这种刺激以前没有引起反响（铃声响起）。这种类型的调节涉及非自愿反应
Behaviorism is the theory that can objectively study human or animal psychology through observable behavior (behavior). This field of study is a response to psychology in the 19th century, which uses self-examination of one’s thoughts and feelings to test the psychology of humans and animals. Behaviorism is a theory that human or animal psychology can objectively study through observable behaviors (behaviors) rather than unobservable thoughts and emotions. The influential figures of behaviorism include psychologists John B. Watson and BF Skinner, who are associated with classical conditioning and operational conditioning, respectively. In classical conditioning, animals or humans learn to relate two stimuli to each other. This type of regulation involves involuntary reactions such as biological or emotional responses. In operational conditioning, animals or humans learn behavior by associating them with consequences. This can be achieved through positive or negative reinforcement or punishment. Although behaviorism is no longer the main mode of thinking in psychology, operational conditions can still be seen in today’s classrooms. Behaviorism is a reaction to psychology and is a subjective research method used by psychologists in the second half of the 19th century. In spiritualism, the mind is studied by analogy and by studying one’s own thoughts and feelings – a process called introspection. Behaviorists believe that psychologists’ observations are too subjective because they have significant differences among individual researchers, often leading to contradictions and unrepeatable discoveries. There are two main types of behaviorism: methodological behaviorism, influenced by the work of John B. Watson, and radicalism initiated by the psychologist BF Skinner. In 1913, psychologist John B. Watson published a paper that was considered an early manifestation of behaviorism: “Psychology as a behaviorist.” In this article, Watson refuses The psychologist’s method and a detailed account of what his psychology should be: scientific behavior, which he called “behavioralism.” It is worth noting that although Watson is often referred to as the “founder” of behaviorism, he is by no means the first person to criticize introspection, nor the first to support objective learning methods. psychology. However, after Watson’s thesis, behaviorism gradually took the lead. By the 1920s, many well-respected figures, including many philosophers and later Nobel laureates Bertrand Russell, recognized the importance of Watson’s philosophy. Among the behaviorists behind Watson, perhaps the most famous is BF Skinner. Compared to many other behaviorists at the time, Skinner’s views focused on scientific interpretation rather than method. Skinner believes that observable behavior is an external manifestation of invisible psychological processes, but it is more convenient to study observable behaviors. His behaviorist approach is to understand the relationship between animal behavior and the environment. Classical regulation and behaviorists believe that humans learn behavior through regulation, and that regulates the stimulation of the environment (such as sound) and the response (such as the behavior of humans when they hear sound). Key research in behaviorism demonstrates the difference between two types of regulation: classical regulation, related to psychologists such as Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson, and operational regulation associated with BF Skinner. Pavlov’s dog experiment is a well-known experiment involving dogs, meat and ring tones. At the beginning of the experiment, the dogs will be offered meat, which will cause them to drool. However, when they heard the ringtone, they didn’t. For the next step in the experiment, the dogs heard the ringtone before they were brought to food. As time goes by, dogs know that ringing means food, so when they hear the ringtone they start to drool – even though they haven’t reacted to the ringtone before. Through this experiment, dogs gradually learned to associate ringtones with food, even if they did not react to the ringtone before. Pavlov’s dog experiments demonstrate classical regulation: the process by which animals or humans learn to relate two previously unrelated stimuli. Pavlov’s dog learned to associate a stimulus (the scent of food) with a “neutral” stimulus that had not previously caused a response (the bell rang). This type of regulation involves an involuntary response.