Social psychologist Roy Baumeister said that self-concept should be understood as a structure of knowledge. People pay attention to themselves and notice their internal state and reaction as well as their external behavior. Through this self-awareness, people collect information about themselves. Self-concepts are built on this information and evolve as people expand their ideas. Early research on self-concept was influenced by the notion that self-concept is a single, stable, unified concept of self. However, recently, scholars believe that it is a dynamic, positive structure that is influenced by personal motivation and social conditions. Carl Rogers is one of the founders of humanistic psychology. He believes that self-concept includes three aspects: self-image is the way we see ourselves. Self-image includes our understanding of our body (eg brown hair, blue eyes, tall), our social roles (eg wife, brother, gardener) and our personality traits (eg extroverted, serious, kind). Self-image is not always consistent with reality. Some people have an exaggerated view of one or more of their characteristics. These exaggerated ideas may be positive or negative, and individuals may have a more positive view of certain aspects of the self and a more negative view of others. Self-esteem is our value to ourselves. The level of personal self-esteem depends on how we evaluate ourselves. These assessments include our personal comparisons with others and the responses of others to us. When we compare ourselves to others and find that we are better at others than others and/or that people respond positively to what we do, our self-esteem in this area will grow. On the other hand, when we compare ourselves to others and find that we are not so successful in a particular area and/or that people react negatively to what we do, our self-esteem will diminish. We can have high self-esteem in some respects (“I am a good student”) and have negative self-esteem in other respects (“I don’t like it”). The ideal self is the self we want to be. There is often a difference between a person’s self-image and a person’s ideal self. This inconsistency can have a negative impact on a person’s self-esteem. According to Karl Rogers, self-image and ideal self can be consistent or inconsistent. The agreement between self-image and ideal self means that there is considerable overlap between the two. While it is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve perfect consistency, greater consistency will make self-realization possible. The inconsistency between self-image and ideal self means that there is a difference between one’s self and one’s experience, leading to internal confusion (or cognitive dissonance) and hindering self-realization. Self-concept begins to develop in early childhood. This process continues throughout the life cycle. However, self-concept has experienced the greatest growth between early childhood and adolescence. By the time they were 2, the children began to distinguish themselves from others. At the age of 3 and 4, the children understand that they are independent and unique self. At this stage, the child’s self-image is primarily descriptive, based primarily on physical characteristics or specific details. However, children are paying more and more attention to their abilities. At about 6 years old, children can convey what they want and need. They also began to define themselves with social groups. Between the ages of 7 and 11, the children begin social comparisons and consider how they are seen by others. At this stage, children’s descriptions of themselves become more abstract. They began to use their ability to describe themselves, not just specific details, they realized that their characteristics existed in a continuum. For example, children at this stage will begin to think that they are more athletic than some people, not athletes, rather than simply exercising or not exercising. At this point, the ideal self and self-image begin to develop. Adolescence is a crucial period of self-concept. The self-concept established during adolescence is usually the basis of the self-concept of the remaining time of a person’s life. In adolescence, people try different roles, roles and self. For adolescents, self-concept is influenced by the success of the areas they value and the reactions of others they value. Success and recognition can promote greater self-esteem and a stronger self-concept into adulthood.

澳大利亚新南威尔士大学心理学Assignment代写:自我意识

社会心理学家Roy Baumeister说,自我概念应该被理解为一种知识结构。人们关注自己,注意到他们的内部状态和反应以及他们的外在行为。通过这种自我意识,人们收集有关自己的信息。自我概念是根据这些信息构建的,并且随着人们扩展他们的想法而不断发展。关于自我概念的早期研究受到以下观点的影响:自我概念是对自我的单​​一,稳定,统一的概念。然而,最近,学者们认为它是一个充满活力,积极的结构,受到个人动机和社会状况的影响。卡尔罗杰斯是人文主义心理学的创始人之一,他认为自我概念包括三个方面:自我形象是我们看待自己的方式。自我形象包括我们对自己身体的了解(例如棕色头发,蓝色眼睛,高个子),我们的社会角色(例如妻子,兄弟,园丁)和我们的性格特征(例如外向,严肃,善良)。自我形象并不总是与现实相符。有些人对他们的一个或多个特征持有夸大的看法。这些夸大的观念可能是积极的或消极的,个人可能对自我的某些方面有更积极的看法,对其他方面有更负面的看法。自尊是我们对自己的价值。个人自尊水平取决于我们评估自己的方式。这些评估包括我们与他人的个人比较以及其他人对我们的回应。当我们将自己与其他人比较并发现我们比其他人更善于和/或人们对我们所做的事情做出积极回应时,我们在该领域的自尊心会增长。另一方面,当我们将自己与其他人进行比较并发现我们在特定领域没有那么成功和/或人们对我们所做的事情做出负面反应时,我们的自尊心就会降低。我们在某些方面可以有很高的自尊(“我是一个好学生”),同时在其他方面有消极的自尊(“我不喜欢”)。理想的自我是我们想成为的自我。一个人的自我形象和一个人的理想自我之间经常存在差异。这种不协调可能会对一个人的自尊产生负面影响。根据卡尔罗杰斯的说法,自我形象和理想的自我可以是一致的或不一致的。自我形象与理想自我之间的一致意味着两者之间存在相当多的重叠。虽然很难(如果不是不可能的话)达到完美的一致性,但更大的一致性将使自我实现成为可能。自我形象与理想自我之间的不一致意味着一个人的自我与一个人的经历之间存在差异,导致内部混淆(或认知失调),阻碍自我实现。自我概念在儿童早期开始发展。这个过程在整个生命周期中持续进行。然而,在儿童早期和青春期之间,自我概念经历了最大的增长。到2岁时,孩子们开始将自己与其他人区分开来。在3岁和4岁时,孩子们明白他们是独立而独特的自我。在这个阶段,孩子的自我形象主要是描述性的,主要基于身体特征或具体细节。然而,孩子们越来越关注他们的能力,大约6岁时,孩子们可以传达他们想要和需要的东西。他们也开始用社会群体来定义自己。在7到11岁之间,孩子们开始进行社会比较,并考虑他们如何被他人看到。在这个阶段,儿童对自己的描述变得更加抽象。他们开始用能力来描述自己,而不仅仅是具体的细节,他们意识到他们的特征存在于一个连续统一体。例如,在这个阶段的孩子将开始认为自己比一些人更运动,而不是运动员,而不是简单的运动或不运动。在这一点上,理想的自我和自我形象开始发展。青春期是自我概念的关键时期。在青春期建立的自我概念通常是一个人生命剩余时间的自我概念的基础。在青少年时期,人们尝试不同的角色,角色和自我。对于青少年而言,自我概念受到他们重视的领域的成功以及对他们重视的其他人的反应的影响。成功和认可可以促进更大的自尊和更强的自我概念进入成年期。

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注