Social psychologist Roy Baumeister said that self-concept should be understood as a structure of knowledge. People pay attention to themselves and notice their internal state and reaction as well as their external behavior. Through this self-awareness, people collect information about themselves. Self-concepts are built on this information and evolve as people expand their ideas. Early research on self-concept was influenced by the notion that self-concept is a single, stable, unified concept of self. However, recently, scholars believe that it is a dynamic, positive structure that is influenced by personal motivation and social conditions. Carl Rogers is one of the founders of humanistic psychology. He believes that self-concept includes three aspects: self-image is the way we see ourselves. Self-image includes our understanding of our body (eg brown hair, blue eyes, tall), our social roles (eg wife, brother, gardener) and our personality traits (eg extroverted, serious, kind). Self-image is not always consistent with reality. Some people have an exaggerated view of one or more of their characteristics. These exaggerated ideas may be positive or negative, and individuals may have a more positive view of certain aspects of the self and a more negative view of others. Self-esteem is our value to ourselves. The level of personal self-esteem depends on how we evaluate ourselves. These assessments include our personal comparisons with others and the responses of others to us. When we compare ourselves to others and find that we are better at others than others and/or that people respond positively to what we do, our self-esteem in this area will grow. On the other hand, when we compare ourselves to others and find that we are not so successful in a particular area and/or that people react negatively to what we do, our self-esteem will diminish. We can have high self-esteem in some respects (“I am a good student”) and have negative self-esteem in other respects (“I don’t like it”). The ideal self is the self we want to be. There is often a difference between a person’s self-image and a person’s ideal self. This inconsistency can have a negative impact on a person’s self-esteem. According to Karl Rogers, self-image and ideal self can be consistent or inconsistent. The agreement between self-image and ideal self means that there is considerable overlap between the two. While it is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve perfect consistency, greater consistency will make self-realization possible. The inconsistency between self-image and ideal self means that there is a difference between one’s self and one’s experience, leading to internal confusion (or cognitive dissonance) and hindering self-realization. Self-concept begins to develop in early childhood. This process continues throughout the life cycle. However, self-concept has experienced the greatest growth between early childhood and adolescence. By the time they were 2, the children began to distinguish themselves from others. At the age of 3 and 4, the children understand that they are independent and unique self. At this stage, the child’s self-image is primarily descriptive, based primarily on physical characteristics or specific details. However, children are paying more and more attention to their abilities. At about 6 years old, children can convey what they want and need. They also began to define themselves with social groups. Between the ages of 7 and 11, the children begin social comparisons and consider how they are seen by others. At this stage, children’s descriptions of themselves become more abstract. They began to use their ability to describe themselves, not just specific details, they realized that their characteristics existed in a continuum. For example, children at this stage will begin to think that they are more athletic than some people, not athletes, rather than simply exercising or not exercising. At this point, the ideal self and self-image begin to develop. Adolescence is a crucial period of self-concept. The self-concept established during adolescence is usually the basis of the self-concept of the remaining time of a person’s life. In adolescence, people try different roles, roles and self. For adolescents, self-concept is influenced by the success of the areas they value and the reactions of others they value. Success and recognition can promote greater self-esteem and a stronger self-concept into adulthood.