美国密歇根大学历史学论文代写:人类动机

后处理考古学是20世纪80年代发生的考古学科学运动,它明确地反映了前一运动的局限性,即20世纪60年代的过程考古学。简而言之,过程考古学使用科学方法来识别影响过去人类行为的环境因素。考古学家曾经实践过程性考古学,或者在成长期间接受过教育,因为它未能解释过去人类行为的变异性而批评了过程考古学。后处理者拒绝确定性论证和逻辑实证主义方法,因为它们太过限制,无法涵盖各种各样的人类动机。最具体的是,作为后加工主义的“激进批判”在20世纪80年代的特点是拒绝实证主义者对行为的一般规律的追求,并建议考古学家更多地关注象征性,结构性和马克思主义观点。象征性和结构性的后处理主义考古学主要在英国与学者伊恩·霍德(Ian Hodder)一起诞生:一些学者如Zbigniew Kobylinski及其同事将其称为“剑桥学校”。在“行动中的象征”等文本中,霍德认为“文化”这个词几乎让实证主义者感到尴尬,虽然物质文化可能反映了环境适应,但它也可能反映了社会的变异性。实证主义者使用的功能性,适应性棱镜使他们对研究中的明显空白点失明。后处理者认为文化不是可以简化为环境变化等外部力量的东西,而是对日常现实的多种多样的有机反应。这些现实由多种政治,经济和社会力量组成,这些力量在特定时间和情况下是特定群体,或者至少似乎是特定群体所特有的,并且远不及处理者所假设的那样可预测。 美国密歇根大学历史学论文代写:人类动机 Post-processing archaeology is an archaeological science movement that took place in the 1980s, which clearly reflects the limitations of the previous movement, the process archaeology of the 1960s. In short, process archaeology uses scientific methods to identify environmental factors that influence past human behavior. Archaeologists have practiced process archaeology or have been educated during their growth because they failed to explain the variability of past human behavior and criticized process archaeology. Post-processors reject deterministic and logical positivist methods because they are too restrictive to cover a wide range of human motives. Most specifically, the “radical critique” as post-processingism was characterized in the 1980s by rejecting positivists’ pursuit of the general laws of behavior and suggested that archaeologists pay more attention to symbolism, structure and Marx. Doctrine. Symbolic and structural post-processing archaeology was born in England together with scholar Ian Hodder: some scholars such as Zbigniew Kobylinski and colleagues called it the “Cambridge School”. In the text “The Symbol...
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加拿大渥太华大学文化Essay代写:不同信仰系统

这些文化人类学的早期领导者共同巩固了一门明确专注于世界文化比较研究的学科。他们的工作受到了对不同信仰系统,实践和社会组织的真正理解的承诺的激励。作为一个学术领域,人类学致力于文化相对主义的概念,认为所有文化在根本上是平等的,只需要根据自己的规范和价值观进行分析。北美文化人类学家的主要专业组织是文化人类学学会,该学会出版“文化人类学”杂志。民族志研究,也称为民族志,是文化人类学家使用的主要方法。民族志的标志性组成部分是参与者观察,这种方法通常归功于Bronislaw Malinowski。马林诺夫斯基是最有影响力的早期人类学家之一,他早于博阿斯和20世纪早期的美国人类学家。对于马林诺夫斯基来说,人类学家的任务是关注日常生活的细节。这需要生活在被研究的社区内 - 被称为现场 - 并完全沉浸在当地环境,文化和实践中。根据马林诺夫斯基的说法,人类学家通过参与和观察获得数据,因此参与观察这一术语。马林诺夫斯基在特罗布里恩群岛的早期研究中制定了这种方法,并在其整个职业生涯中继续发展和实施。这些方法随后被博阿斯和博阿斯的学生采用。这种方法成为当代文化人类学的一个特征。虽然文化人类学家的传统形象涉及研究遥远地区偏远社区的研究人员,但现实却更加多样化。二十一世纪的文化人类学家在所有类型的环境中进行研究,并且可以在人类生活的任何地方工作。有些甚至专注于数字(或在线)世界,为当今的虚拟领域调整人种学方法。人类学家在世界各地进行实地考察,有些人甚至在他们的祖国进行实地考察。 加拿大渥太华大学文化Essay代写:不同信仰系统 These early leaders of cultural anthropology have consolidated a discipline that clearly focuses on comparative research in world culture. Their work is motivated by a commitment to a true understanding of different belief systems, practices and social organizations. As an academic field, anthropology is committed to the concept of cultural relativism, arguing that all cultures are fundamentally equal and only need to be analyzed according to their own norms and values. The main professional organization of North American cultural anthropologists is the Cultural Anthropology Society, which publishes the journal Cultural Anthropology. Ethnographic research, also known as ethnography, is the main method used by cultural anthropologists. The iconic component of ethnography is participant observation, which is usually attributed to Bronislaw Malinowski. Malinowski is one of the most influential early anthropologists, he was earlier than Boas and an American anthropologist in the early 20th century. For Malinowski, the task of anthropologists is to focus on the details...
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美国宾夕法尼亚大学社会学论文代写:文化人类学

文化人类学的历史可以追溯到19世纪,当时像Lewis Henry Morgan和Edward Tylor这样的早期学者对文化系统的比较研究产生了兴趣。这一代人借鉴了查尔斯达尔文的理论,试图将他的进化观应用于人类文化。他们后来被解雇为所谓的“扶手椅人类学家”,因为他们的观点基于他人收集的数据,并没有亲自与他们声称要研究的团体进行亲身接触。这些观点后来被Franz Boas驳斥,后者被广泛称为美国人类学之父。博阿斯强烈谴责扶手椅人类学家对文化进化的信仰,反而认为所有文化都必须按照自己的条件而不是作为一部分加以考虑。进步模型。作为太平洋西北地区土着文化的专家,他参加了探险,他教过哥伦比亚大学教授的第一代美国人类学家。他的学生包括Margaret Mead,Alfred Kroeber,Zora Neale Hurston和Ruth Benedict。博阿斯的影响继续在文化人类学关注种族,更广泛地说,作为社会建构而非生物学基础的力量的身份。博阿斯坚决反对当时流行的科学种族主义思想,如颅相学和优生学。相反,他将种族和族裔群体之间的差异归因于社会因素。在博阿斯之后,人类学系成为美国大学的常态,文化人类学是研究的核心内容。博阿斯的学生继续在全国各地建立人类学系,包括在西北大学启动该项目的Melville Herskovits和加州大学伯克利分校的第一位人类学教授Alfred Kroeber。玛格丽特米德继续成为国际知名人士,无论是作为人类学家还是学者。该领域在美国和其他地方越来越受欢迎,让位于新一代极具影响力的人类学家如ClaudeLévi-Strauss和Clifford Geertz。 美国宾夕法尼亚大学社会学论文代写:文化人类学 Cultural anthropology’s roots date back to the 1800s, when early scholars like Lewis Henry Morgan and Edward Tylor became interested in the comparative study of cultural systems. This generation drew on the theories of Charles Darwin, attempting to apply his concept of evolution to human culture. They were later dismissed as so-called “armchair anthropologists,” since they based their ideas on data collected by others and did not personally engage first-hand with the groups they claimed to study. These ideas were later refuted by Franz Boas, who is widely hailed as the father of anthropology in the U.S. Boas strongly denounced the armchair anthropologists’ belief in cultural evolution, arguing instead that all cultures had to be considered on their own terms and not as part of a progress model. An expert in the indigenous cultures of the Pacific Northwest, where he participated in expeditions, he taught what would become...
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澳大利亚墨尔本大学艺术论文代写:艺术贡献

除了他自己的艺术贡献之外,还有几个因素共同帮助杰克逊波洛克成为艺术巨头和传奇人物。他的男子气概强硬,上镜的牛仔形象与叛逆的电影明星詹姆斯·迪恩相似,而且他在一次酒精狂欢的高速单车撞车中死亡,他的情妇和另一个人作为乘客他的故事的浪漫。他的妻子李克拉斯纳(Lee Krasner)的死亡情况以及对他的财产的巧妙处理,为他的工作和整个艺术市场提供了动力。在他的一生中,波洛克经常隐居,符合美国在第二次世界大战后所钦佩的唯一艺术家和英雄的神话。他的形象随着纽约艺术商业和文化的发展而增长。波洛克于1929年以17岁的身份来到纽约市,正当现代艺术博物馆开幕,艺术界蓬勃发展。 1943年,艺术收藏家/社交名媛佩吉古根海姆(Peggy Guggenheim)通过委托他为她的曼哈顿联排别墅的门厅画一幅壁画,给了他很大的突破。她签约给他每月150美元这样做,让他完全专注于绘画。作品“壁画”将波洛克推向了艺术世界的最前沿。这是他有史以来最大的画作,他第一次使用房屋涂料,虽然仍然使用刷子,但试图用油漆涂抹。它引起了着名艺术评论家克莱门特格林伯格的注意,他后来说,“我看了一眼壁画,我知道杰克逊是这个国家最伟大的画家。”此后,格林伯格和古根海姆成为波洛克的朋友,拥护者和推动者。一些人甚至已经证实,中央情报局正在使用抽象表现主义作为冷战武器,秘密推广和资助世界各地的运动和展览,以展示美国的知识分子自由主义和文化力量,而不是意识形态的一致性和刚性。俄罗斯共产主义。 澳大利亚墨尔本大学艺术论文代写:艺术贡献 In addition to his own artistic contributions, there are several factors that help Jackson Pollock become an art giant and legend. His masculinity is tough, the cowboy image on the mirror is similar to the rebellious movie star James Dean, and he died in a high-speed bicycle crash in an alcoholic carnival, his mistress and another person as a passenger his story romance. The death of his wife, Lee Krasner, and the clever handling of his property provided the impetus for his work and the entire art market. Throughout his life, Pollock often retired, in line with the myth of the only artist and hero that the United States admired after the Second World War. His image grew with the development of art business and culture in New York. Pollock arrived in New York City as a 17-year-old in 1929. Just as the Museum of Modern Art opened, the art world thrived. In 1943, art collector/social socialite...
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美国布朗大学艺术Essay代写:实际绘画过程

杰克逊波洛克(1912年1月28日 - 1956年8月11日出生的保罗杰克逊波洛克)是一位动作画家,是前卫抽象表现主义运动的领导者之一,被认为是美国最伟大的艺术家之之一,四十四岁时,他的生活被缩短了,在驾驶陶醉的时候,他在自己的手中发生了悲剧性的汽车事故。虽然他一生中经济困难,但他的画作价值数百万,其中一幅画,1948年年第5幅,2006年年通过苏富比以约1.4亿美元的价格出售。他因滴水而闻名,这是他开发的一种激进的新技术,使他成名并臭名昭着。波洛克是一个善变的人,过着艰难而快速的生活,被抑郁和隐居的时期打断,并且酗酒挣扎,但他也是一个极度敏感和灵性的人。他于1945年与李克拉斯纳结婚,她本人是一位受人尊敬的抽象表现主义艺术家,对他的艺术,生活和遗产产生了很大的影响。波洛克的朋友兼赞助人阿方索·奥索里奥描述了洛克的作品如此独特和引人入胜,谈到他的艺术之旅“,在这里,我看到一个男人既破坏了过去的所有传统,又统一了他们,超越了立体主义,超越了立体主义毕加索和超现实主义,超越艺术中发生的一切......他的作品表达了行动和沉思。“无论你是否喜欢波洛克的作品,你越了解他和他的全部作品,你就越有可能欣赏到专家和其他许多人看到的价值,并欣赏许多观众所感受到的精神联系。它。至少,在他的实际绘画过程的精彩镜头中观察了他的焦点强度和他的舞蹈动作的优雅后,很难不受男人和他的艺术的影响。 美国布朗大学艺术Essay代写:实际绘画过程 Jackson Pollock (Paul Jackson Pollock, born on January 28, 1912 - August 11, 1956) is an action painter and one of the leaders of the avant-garde abstract expressionist movement, considered to be the greatest artist of the United States. One. At the age of forty-four, his life was shortened, and when he was intoxicated, he had a tragic car accident in his own hands. Although he had financial difficulties in his life, his paintings were worth millions. One of them, the fifth in 1948, was sold by Sotheby's in 2006 for about $140 million. He is known for dripping water, a radical new technology he developed that made him famous and notorious. Pollock is a fickle person who lives a difficult and fast life, interrupted by periods of depression and seclusion, and struggles with alcoholism, but he is also an extremely sensitive and spiritual person. He married Lee Krasner in 1945. She is a respected abstract expressionist artist...
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新西兰梅西大学生物论文代写:肾脏爆裂

这是发生的事情:与肺组织相比,淡水是低渗的。当水进入细胞时,会导致细胞膨胀。一些肺细胞可能会爆裂。由于肺部的毛细血管暴露在淡水中,水会进入血液,稀释血液。这导致血细胞破裂(溶血)。升高的血浆K +(钾离子)和降低的Na +(钠离子)水平可能会扰乱心脏的电活动心脏,引起心室颤动。离子不平衡引起的心脏停搏可能在短短两到三分钟内发生。即使你在水下的最初几分钟存活下来,肾脏爆裂的血细胞也可能发生急性肾功能衰竭。如果你淹没在冷淡水中,当水进入你的血液时温度变化甚至可能使你的心脏冷却到足以导致心脏停止低温。另一方面,在盐水中,冷水不会进入血液,因此温度的影响主要限于皮肤的热量流失。 新西兰梅西大学生物论文代写:肾脏爆裂 This is what happens: fresh water is hypotonic compared to lung tissue. When water enters the cell, it causes the cell to swell. Some lung cells may burst. As the capillaries in the lungs are exposed to fresh water, the water enters the bloodstream and dilutes the blood. This causes blood cells to rupture (hemolysis). Elevated plasma K + (potassium ions) and decreased Na + (sodium ion) levels may disturb the heart's electrically active heart and cause ventricular fibrillation. Cardiac arrest caused by ion imbalance can occur in as little as two to three minutes. Even if you survive the first few minutes of underwater, acute renal failure can occur in blood cells that burst from the kidneys. If you are drowning in cold water, temperature changes as the water enters your blood may even cool your heart enough to cause the heart to stop crying. On the other hand, in saline, cold water does not enter the...
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美国波士顿学院生物工程论文代写:盐水溺水

在淡水中溺水不同于在盐水中溺水。对于一个人来说,更多的人淹没在淡水中而不是盐水中。大约90%的溺水发生在淡水中,包括游泳池,浴缸和河流。这部分是因为水的化学性质以及它如何影响渗透。溺水涉及在水中窒息。您甚至不需要在水中呼吸,但如果您吸入盐水,高盐浓度将阻止水进入您的肺组织。当人们淹没在盐水中时,通常是因为他们无法吸收氧气或排出二氧化碳。在盐水中呼吸会在空气和肺部之间形成物理屏障。吸入盐水的人在去除盐水之前将无法再次呼吸。但是,这并不意味着不会产生挥之不去的影响。盐水对肺细胞中的离子浓度是高渗的,所以如果吞下它,血液中的水会进入肺部以补偿浓度差异。这会导致你的血液变稠,给你的循环系统带来压力。心脏受到极大的压力可能会在8到10分钟内导致心脏骤停。好消息是,通过饮用水补充血液相对容易,所以如果你在最初的经历中存活下来,你就可以恢复健康。令人惊讶的是,即使您避免溺水,您也可能因为呼吸淡水而死亡。这是因为相对于离子,淡水比肺细胞内的液体更“稀释”。淡水不会进入你的皮肤细胞,因为角蛋白基本上会使它们防水,但是水会涌入未受保护的肺细胞,试图平衡细胞膜上的浓度梯度。这可能会导致大量组织损伤,因此即使从肺部排出水,仍有可能无法恢复。 美国波士顿学院生物工程论文代写:盐水溺水 Drowning in fresh water is different from drowning in salt water. For a person, more people are drowning in fresh water than in salt water. About 90% of the drowning occurs in fresh water, including swimming pools, bathtubs and rivers. This is partly due to the chemical nature of the water and how it affects penetration. Drowning involves suffocating in the water. You don't even need to breathe in the water, but if you inhale salt water, high salt concentrations will prevent water from entering your lung tissue. When people are submerged in salt water, it is usually because they cannot absorb oxygen or emit carbon dioxide. Breathing in saline creates a physical barrier between the air and the lungs. People who inhale salt water will not be able to breathe again before removing salt water. However, this does not mean that there will be no lingering effects. The concentration of ions in the lung cells is hypertonic, so if...
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澳大利亚南澳大学化学论文代写:摩尔钾离子

此外,有时需要考虑多种类型的溶质。如果您的半透膜具有2摩尔Na +离子和2摩尔Cl-离子,另一侧有2摩尔K +离子和2摩尔Cl-离子,则确定张力可能会造成混淆。如果您认为每侧有4摩尔离子,则隔板的每一侧相对于另一侧是等渗的。然而,钠离子侧相对于该类离子是高渗的(另一侧对于钠离子是低渗的)。具有钾离子的一侧相对于钾是高渗的(并且氯化钠溶液相对于钾是低渗的)。您如何看待离子穿过膜?会有运动吗?您期望发生的是钠和钾离子穿过膜直到达到平衡,分区的两侧含有1摩尔钠离子,1摩尔钾离子和2摩尔氯离子。得到它了?水在半透膜上移动。请记住,水会移动以均衡溶质颗粒的浓度。如果膜两侧的溶液是等渗的,水就会自由前后移动。水从膜的低渗(浓度较低)侧移动到高渗(浓度较低)侧。流动的方向持续直到溶液是等渗的。 澳大利亚南澳大学化学论文代写:摩尔钾离子 In addition, there are times when multiple types of solutes need to be considered. If your semi-permeable membrane has 2 moles of Na + ions and 2 moles of Cl-ion and 2 moles of K + ions and 2 moles of Cl- ions on the other side, determining the tension may cause confusion. If you think there are 4 moles of ions on each side, each side of the separator is isotonic with respect to the other side. However, the sodium ion side is hypertonic with respect to this type of ion (the other side is hypotonic for sodium ions). The side with potassium ions is hypertonic with respect to potassium (and the sodium chloride solution is hypotonic relative to potassium). How do you think about ions passing through the membrane? Will there be exercise? What you expect is that sodium and potassium ions pass through the membrane until equilibrium is reached, with 1 mole of sodium, 1...
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美国波莫纳生物Essay代写:血液细胞

红细胞是用来解释张力的典型例子。当血液细胞内的盐(离子)浓度与其外部相同时,溶液相对于细胞是等渗的,并且它们呈现正常的形状和大小。如果细胞外的溶质少于其内部的溶质例如,如果你将红血细胞放入淡水中会发生,那么溶液(水)相对于红细胞内部是低渗的。当水冲入细胞以试图使内部和外部溶液的浓度相同时,细胞膨胀并可能破裂。顺便提一下,由于低渗溶液会导致细胞破裂,这就是为什么一个人比淡水更容易淹没在淡水中的原因之一。如果你喝太多水,这也是一个问题。如果细胞外的溶质浓度高于细胞内的浓度,如果将红细胞置于浓盐溶液中会发生,则盐溶液相对于细胞内部是高渗的。红细胞经历褶皱,这意味着它们随着水离开细胞而收缩和萎缩,直到红细胞内外的溶质浓度相同。操纵解决方案的张力具有实际应用。例如,反渗透可用于净化溶液和淡化海水。高渗溶液有助于保存食物。例如,将食物包装在盐中或在糖或盐的高渗溶液中酸洗会产生高渗环境,杀死微生物或至少限制其繁殖能力。高渗溶液还使食物和其他物质脱水,因为水离开细胞或通过膜以试图建立平衡。术语“高渗”和“低渗”经常使学生感到困惑,因为他们忽略了对学习框架的考虑。例如,如果将细胞置于盐溶液中,则盐溶液比细胞血浆更高渗(更浓)。但是,如果从细胞内部观察情况,可以认为等离子体对盐水是低渗的。 美国波莫纳生物Essay代写:血液细胞 Red blood cells are a typical example used to explain tension. When the salt (ion) concentration in the blood cells is the same as the outside, the solution is isotonic with respect to the cells, and they assume a normal shape and size. If the extracellular solute is less than its internal solute, for example, if you put red blood cells into fresh water, the solution (water) is hypotonic relative to the interior of the red blood cells. When water is flushed into the cells in an attempt to bring the concentrations of the internal and external solutions the same, the cells swell and may rupture. Incidentally, because hypotonic solutions can cause cell rupture, this is one of the reasons why a person is more likely to be submerged in fresh water than fresh water. If you drink too much water, this is also a problem. If the extracellular solute concentration is higher than the intracellular concentration, if red blood...
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英国拉夫堡大学Essay代写:脂肪物质

动作电位是静息膜电位的暂时逆转,从阴性到阳性。动作电位“尖峰”通常分为几个阶段:响应信号(或刺激),如神经递质与其受体结合或用手指按键,一些Na +通道打开,允许Na +流入细胞到期到浓度梯度。膜电位去极化或变得更正。一旦膜电位达到阈值 - 通常约-55 mV-动作电位继续。如果未达到潜力,则不会发生动作电位,细胞将恢复其静息膜电位。达到阈值的这一要求是动作电位被称为全有或全无事件的原因。达到阈值后,电压门控Na +通道打开,Na +离子涌入电池。膜电位从负转变为正,因为细胞内部现在相对于外部更为正。随着膜电位达到+ 30 mV  - 动作电位的峰值 - 电压门控钾通道打开,并且K +由于浓度梯度而离开细胞。膜电位复极化或移回负静息膜电位。随着K +离子导致膜电位变得比静息电位稍微负一点,神经元暂时变得超极化。 神经元进入不应期,其中钠/钾泵使神经元返回其静息膜电位。动作电位沿着轴突的长度向轴突终端传播,轴突终端将信息传递给其他神经元。传播的速度取决于轴突的直径 - 其中较宽的直径意味着更快的传播 - 以及轴突的一部分是否被髓鞘覆盖,髓鞘是一种类似于电缆线覆盖的脂肪物质:它的鞘轴突并防止电流泄漏,使动作电位更快发生。 英国拉夫堡大学Essay代写:脂肪物质 The action potential is a temporary reversal of the resting membrane potential, from negative to positive. The action potential "spike" is usually divided into several stages: a response signal (or stimulus), such as a neurotransmitter that binds to its receptor or a finger press, and some Na+ channels open, allowing the Na+ influent cell to expire to a concentration gradient. The membrane potential is depolarized or becomes corrected. Once the membrane potential reaches the threshold - usually about -55 mV - the action potential continues. If the potential is not reached, the action potential will not occur and the cell will resume its resting membrane potential. The requirement to reach the threshold is why the action potential is called an all-or-nothing event. After the threshold is reached, the voltage-gated Na+ channel turns on and Na+ ions flood into the cell....
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