1810年7月20日,哥伦比亚爱国者激起了波哥大人民对街头抗议西班牙统治的抗议。总督在压力下被迫同意允许有限的独立,后来成为永久性的。今天,7月20日在哥伦比亚庆祝为独立日。新格拉纳达(现哥伦比亚)的人民对西班牙统治不满。拿破仑于1808年入侵西班牙,并囚禁了费迪南德七世国王。然后拿破仑把他的兄弟约瑟夫波拿巴放在西班牙王位上,激怒了大部分西班牙美国人。在新格拉纳达,卡米洛托雷斯特诺里奥在1809年写了他着名的纪念碑阿格拉维奥斯(“纪念罪行”),讲述了反对克里奥尔人的多次西班牙人的蔑视,克里奥尔人经常无法担任高级职务,而且他们的交易受到限制。他的情绪得到了许多人的赞同。到1810年7月,波哥大是该地区西班牙统治的坚持者。在南部,基多的主要公民试图在1809年8月从西班牙夺取他们的政府控制权:这次叛乱被镇压,领导人被扔进了一个地牢。在东部,加拉加斯于4月19日宣布临时独立。即使在新格拉纳达,也有压力:重要的海滨城市卡塔赫纳已于5月宣布独立,其他小城镇和地区也纷纷效仿。所有人的目光都转向总督所在地波哥大。卡马乔前往总督安东尼奥·何塞·阿马尔·博尔博(AntonioJoséAmaryBorbón)的家中,在那里,关于独立的公开城镇会议的请愿书被拒绝了。与此同时,LuísRubio去向Llorente询问花瓶。有些人说,他粗鲁地拒绝了,而其他人则礼貌地拒绝了,迫使爱国者去计划B,这是为了反对他说一些粗鲁的话。无论是Llorente还是他们都没有成功:它没关系。爱国者队穿过波哥大街头,声称AmaryBorbón和Llorente都很粗鲁。已经处于边缘地位的人口容易被煽动。波哥大的爱国者有一个计划。 20日上午,他们会请着名的西班牙商人JoaquínGonzalezLlorente借用一个花瓶装饰一张桌子庆祝,以纪念着名的爱国者同情者Antonio Villavicencio。人们认为,以可信度而闻名的洛伦特会拒绝。他的拒绝将成为引发骚乱的借口,并迫使总督将权力移交给克里奥尔人。与此同时,JoaquínCamacho将前往Viceregal宫殿并要求一个公开的委员会:他们知道这也将被拒绝。波哥大人民走上街头抗议西班牙人的傲慢态度。波哥大市长JoséMiguelPey的介入对于拯救被暴民袭击的不幸Llorente的皮肤是必要的。在JoséMaríaCarbonell等爱国者的指导下,波哥大的下层人员前往主广场,在那里他们大声要求举行开放式城镇会议,以确定城市和新格拉纳达的未来。一旦人们充分激起,Carbonell便带走了一些人并围住了当地的骑兵和步兵营,士兵们不敢攻击那些不守规矩的暴徒。

加拿大多伦多大学历史学Essay代写:哥伦比亚独立日

On July 20, 1810, Colombian patriots stirred the population of Bogotá into street protests against Spanish rule. The Viceroy, under pressure, was forced to agree to allow for a limited independence which later became permanent. Today, July 20 is celebrated in Colombia as Independence Day. The people of New Granada (now Colombia) were unhappy with Spanish rule. Napoleon had invaded Spain in 1808 and imprisoned King Ferdinand VII. Napoleon then put his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne, infuriating most of Spanish America. In New Granada, Camilo Torres Tenorio had written in 1809 his famous Memorial de Agravios (“Remembrance of Offenses”) about repeated Spanish slights against Creoles, who often could not hold high offices and whose trade was restricted. His sentiments were echoed by many. By July of 1810, Bogota was a holdout for Spanish rule in the region. To the south, leading citizens of Quito had attempted to wrest control of their government from Spain in August of 1809: this revolt had been put down and the leaders were thrown in a dungeon. To the east, Caracas had declared a provisional independence on April 19. Even within New Granada, there was pressure: the important seaside city of Cartagena had declared independence in May and other small towns and regions had followed suit. All eyes turned to Bogota, the seat of the Viceroy. Camacho proceeded to the home of Viceroy Antonio José Amar y Borbón, where the petition for an open town meeting regarding independence was predictably denied. Meanwhile, Luís Rubio went to ask Llorente for the flower vase. By some accounts, he refused rudely, and by others, he declined politely, forcing the patriots to go to plan B, which was to antagonize him into saying something rude. Either Llorente obliged them or they made it up: it didn’t matter. Patriots ran through the streets of Bogota, claiming that both Amar y Borbón and Llorente had been rude. The population, already on edge, was easy to incite. Bogota’s patriots had a plan. On the morning of the 20th, they would ask well-known Spanish merchant Joaquín Gonzalez Llorente to borrow a flower vase with which to adorn a table for a celebration in honor of Antonio Villavicencio, a well-known patriot sympathizer. It was assumed that Llorente, who had a reputation for irascibility, would refuse. His refusal would be the excuse to provoke a riot and force the Viceroy to hand power over to the creoles. Meanwhile, Joaquín Camacho would go to the Viceregal palace and request an open council: they knew that this, too, would be refused. The people of Bogota took to the streets to protest Spanish arrogance. The intervention of Bogota Mayor José Miguel Pey was necessary to save the skin of the unfortunate Llorente, who was attacked by a mob. Guided by patriots like José María Carbonell, the lower classes of Bogota made their way to the main square, where they loudly demanded an open town meeting to determine the future of the city and New Granada. Once the people were sufficiently stirred up, Carbonell then took some men and surrounded the local cavalry and infantry barracks, where the soldiers did not dare attack the unruly mob.

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