它被称为黄石超级火山,由此产生的间歇泉,冒泡的泥盆,温泉和长期火山的证据使黄石国家公园成为一个迷人的地质仙境。该地区的官方名称是“黄石火山口”,它横跨落基山脉约72至55公里(35至44英里)的区域。火山口具有210万年的地质活动,定期向大气中输送熔岩和气体和尘埃云,并将景观重塑数百公里。黄石火山口是世界上最大的火山口之一。火山口,它的超级火山和底层的岩浆室帮助地质学家了解火山活动,并且是研究热点地质对地球表面的影响的主要场所。黄石火山口实际上是一大片热材料的“通风口”,它通过地壳向下延伸数百公里。羽状物持续存在至少1800万年,是地球地幔熔岩上升到地表的区域。羽状物保持相对稳定,而北美大陆已经过了它。地质学家追踪由羽流产生的一系列破火山口。这些火山口从东向东延伸,随着板块的运动向西南方向移动。黄石公园就位于现代火山口的中间。火山口在2.1和130万年前经历了“超级火山爆发”,然后在大约63万年前再次爆发。超级火山喷发是巨大的,在数千平方公里的景观中蔓延着灰烬和岩石的云层。与那些相比,今天黄石公园展出的小火山喷发和热点活动相对较小。供给黄石火山口的羽流穿过一个长约80公里(47英里),宽20公里(12英里)的岩浆房。它充满了熔岩,暂时静止地位于地球表面下方,尽管熔岩内的熔岩运动不时会触发地震。来自羽流的热量产生间歇泉(将过热的水从地下喷射到空气中),温泉和遍布整个地区的泥盆。来自岩浆室的热量和压力正在缓慢地增加黄石高原的高度,黄石高原近来一直在快速上升。然而,到目前为止,没有迹象表明即将发生火山爆发。研究该地区的科学家更关心的是主要超级火山爆发之间的热液爆炸的危险。这些是当地下过热水系统受地震干扰时引起的爆发。即使是很远的地震也会影响岩浆室。

加拿大渥太华大学旅游学Assignment代写:黄石公园的火山

There’s a powerful and violent menace lurking under northwestern Wyoming and southeastern Montana, one that has reshaped the landscape several times over the last several million years. It’s called the Yellowstone Supervolcano and the resulting geysers, bubbling mudpots, hot springs, and evidence of long-gone volcanoes make Yellowstone National Park a fascinating geologic wonderland. The official name for this region is the “Yellowstone Caldera”, and it spans an area about 72 by 55 kilometers (35 to 44 miles) in the Rocky Mountains. The caldera has been geologically active for 2.1 million years, periodically sending lava and clouds of gas and dust into the atmosphere, and reshaping the landscape for hundreds of kilometers. Yellowstone Caldera is among the world’s largest such calderas. The caldera, its supervolcano, and the underlying magma chamber help geologists understand volcanism and is a prime place to study first-hand the effects of hot-spot geology on the Earth’s surface. The Yellowstone Caldera is really the “vent” for a large plume of hot material that extends hundreds of kilometers down through Earth’s crust. The plume has persisted for at least 18 million years and is a region where molten rock from Earth’s mantle rises to the surface. The plume has remained relatively stable while the North American continent has passed over it. Geologists track a series of calderas created by the plume. These calderas run from the east to northeast and follow the motion of the plate moves to the southwest. Yellowstone Park lies right in the middle of the modern caldera. The caldera experienced “super-eruptions” 2.1 and 1.3 million years ago, and then again about 630,000 years ago. Super-eruptions are massive ones, spreading clouds of ash and rock over thousands of square kilometers of the landscape. Compared to those, smaller eruptions and the hot-spot activity Yellowstone exhibits today are relatively minor. The plume that feeds the Yellowstone Caldera moves through a magma chamber some 80 kilometers (47 miles) long and 20 km (12 miles) wide. It is filled with molten rock that, for the moment, lies fairly quietly below Earth’s surface, although from time to time, the movement of the lava inside the chamber triggers earthquakes. Heat from the plume creates the geysers (which shoot superheated water into the air from underground), hot springs, and mudpots scattered throughout the region. Heat and pressure from the magma chamber is slowly increasing the height of the Yellowstone Plateau, which has been rising more rapidly in recent times. So far, however, there is no indication that a volcanic eruption is about to occur. Of more concern to scientists studying the region is the danger of hydrothermal explosions in between major super-eruptions. These are outbursts caused when underground systems of superheated water are disturbed by earthquakes. Even earthquakes at a great distance can affect the magma chamber.

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