According to Bandura, there are two factors that influence whether someone is involved in a particular behavior: expected outcomes and self-efficacy. In other words, our ability to achieve or accomplish a task depends on whether we think we can do it (self-efficacy) and whether we think it will produce good results (expected results). Self-efficacy has a major impact on the amount of effort an individual applies to a particular task. A person with a high level of self-efficacy for a particular task will be resilient and persistent in the face of setbacks, and a person with a low level of self-efficacy for the task may detach or avoid this. For example, students with lower self-efficacy in mathematics may avoid signing up for challenging math classes. Importantly, our level of self-efficacy varies from field to field. For example, you may have a high level of self-efficacy in your hometown navigation capabilities, but your level of self-efficacy is low for your ability to navigate in a foreign city that does not speak the language. Often, an individual’s level of self-efficacy for a task cannot be used to predict the self-efficacy of other tasks. Self-efficacy is provided by several main sources of information: personal experience, observation, persuasion, and emotion. In predicting their ability to succeed in new assignments, individuals often focus on their past similar mission experiences. This information usually has a strong impact on our sense of self-efficacy, which is logical: if you have done it many times, you may believe that you can do it again. Personal experience factors also explain why it can be difficult to increase a person’s self-efficacy. When a person’s self-efficacy is low on a task, they usually avoid the task, preventing them from accumulating positive experiences and ultimately enhancing their confidence. When a person tries a new task and succeeds, experience builds their confidence, resulting in a higher level of self-efficacy associated with similar tasks. We also judge our ability by observing others. Imagine that you have a friend who is known for coaching potatoes and that friend has successfully participated in the marathon. This observation may make you believe that you can also be a runner. Researchers have found that when we work harder than natural ability to see others succeed in the event, our self-efficacy for specific activities is more likely to increase. For example, if you have a low level of self-efficacy in public speaking, then observing the development of skills by a timid person may help increase your own self-confidence. It is unlikely that a person who is born with charisma and extroversion will deliver a speech. When we feel that we are similar to the people we observe, observing others is more likely to affect our own self-efficacy. However, in general, watching other people does not affect our self-efficacy, just like our personal mission experience. Sometimes others may increase our self-efficacy by providing support and encouragement. However, this persuasiveness does not always have a strong impact on self-efficacy, especially when compared to the effects of personal experience.