根据Bandura的说法,有两个因素影响某人是否参与某一特定行为:预期结果和自我效能。换句话说,我们实现目标或完成任务的能力取决于我们是否认为我们能够做到(自我效能),以及我们是否认为它会产生良好的结果(预期结果)。自我效能对个人应用于特定任务的努力量具有重要影响。对于特定任务具有高水平自我效能的人在面对挫折时将具有弹性和持久性,而对于该任务具有低自我效能水平的人可能会脱离或避免这种情况。例如,对数学有较低自我效能感的学生可能会避免报名参加具有挑战性的数学课程。重要的是,我们的自我效能水平因领域而异。例如,您可能对自己的家乡导航能力有很高的自我效能感,但对于您在不会说该语言的国外城市中导航能力的自我效能水平很低。通常,个人对一项任务的自我效能水平不能用于预测其他任务的自我效能。自我效能是由几个主要信息来源提供的:个人经验,观察,说服和情绪。在预测他们在新任务中取得成功的能力时,个人通常会关注他们过去的类似任务经历。这些信息通常会对我们的自我效能感产生强烈影响,这是合乎逻辑的:如果你已经做了很多次,你可能会相信你可以再做一次。个人经验因素也解释了为什么增加一个人的自我效能可能很困难。当一个人对某项任务的自我效能水平较低时,他们通常会避免这项任务,从而阻止他们积累积极的经验,最终可能增强他们的信心。当一个人尝试新任务并取得成功时,经验可以建立他们的信心,从而产生与类似任务相关的更高水平的自我效能。我们还通过观察他人来判断自己的能力。想象一下,你有一个以教练马铃薯而闻名的朋友,然后那个朋友成功地参加马拉松比赛。这种观察可能会让你相信你也可以成为一名跑步者。研究人员发现,当我们通过努力工作而不是自然能力看到其他人在该活动中取得成功时,我们对特定活动的自我效能更有可能增加。例如,如果你对公开演讲的自我效能感低,那么观察胆小的人发展技能可能有助于增加你自己的自信心。观看一个天生具有魅力和外向的人发表演讲的可能性不大。当我们觉得自己与我们观察的人相似时,观察他人更有可能影响我们自己的自我效能。但是,一般来说,观看其他人不会影响我们的自我效能,就像我们个人的任务经验一样。有时,其他人可能会通过提供支持和鼓励来提高我们的自我效能感。然而,这种说服力并不总是对自我效能产生强烈影响,特别是与个人经验的效果相比。

加拿大心理学论文代写:自我效能

According to Bandura, there are two factors that influence whether someone is involved in a particular behavior: expected outcomes and self-efficacy. In other words, our ability to achieve or accomplish a task depends on whether we think we can do it (self-efficacy) and whether we think it will produce good results (expected results). Self-efficacy has a major impact on the amount of effort an individual applies to a particular task. A person with a high level of self-efficacy for a particular task will be resilient and persistent in the face of setbacks, and a person with a low level of self-efficacy for the task may detach or avoid this. For example, students with lower self-efficacy in mathematics may avoid signing up for challenging math classes. Importantly, our level of self-efficacy varies from field to field. For example, you may have a high level of self-efficacy in your hometown navigation capabilities, but your level of self-efficacy is low for your ability to navigate in a foreign city that does not speak the language. Often, an individual’s level of self-efficacy for a task cannot be used to predict the self-efficacy of other tasks. Self-efficacy is provided by several main sources of information: personal experience, observation, persuasion, and emotion. In predicting their ability to succeed in new assignments, individuals often focus on their past similar mission experiences. This information usually has a strong impact on our sense of self-efficacy, which is logical: if you have done it many times, you may believe that you can do it again. Personal experience factors also explain why it can be difficult to increase a person’s self-efficacy. When a person’s self-efficacy is low on a task, they usually avoid the task, preventing them from accumulating positive experiences and ultimately enhancing their confidence. When a person tries a new task and succeeds, experience builds their confidence, resulting in a higher level of self-efficacy associated with similar tasks. We also judge our ability by observing others. Imagine that you have a friend who is known for coaching potatoes and that friend has successfully participated in the marathon. This observation may make you believe that you can also be a runner. Researchers have found that when we work harder than natural ability to see others succeed in the event, our self-efficacy for specific activities is more likely to increase. For example, if you have a low level of self-efficacy in public speaking, then observing the development of skills by a timid person may help increase your own self-confidence. It is unlikely that a person who is born with charisma and extroversion will deliver a speech. When we feel that we are similar to the people we observe, observing others is more likely to affect our own self-efficacy. However, in general, watching other people does not affect our self-efficacy, just like our personal mission experience. Sometimes others may increase our self-efficacy by providing support and encouragement. However, this persuasiveness does not always have a strong impact on self-efficacy, especially when compared to the effects of personal experience.

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