红细胞是用来解释张力的典型例子。当血液细胞内的盐(离子)浓度与其外部相同时,溶液相对于细胞是等渗的,并且它们呈现正常的形状和大小。如果细胞外的溶质少于其内部的溶质例如,如果你将红血细胞放入淡水中会发生,那么溶液(水)相对于红细胞内部是低渗的。当水冲入细胞以试图使内部和外部溶液的浓度相同时,细胞膨胀并可能破裂。顺便提一下,由于低渗溶液会导致细胞破裂,这就是为什么一个人比淡水更容易淹没在淡水中的原因之一。如果你喝太多水,这也是一个问题。如果细胞外的溶质浓度高于细胞内的浓度,如果将红细胞置于浓盐溶液中会发生,则盐溶液相对于细胞内部是高渗的。红细胞经历褶皱,这意味着它们随着水离开细胞而收缩和萎缩,直到红细胞内外的溶质浓度相同。操纵解决方案的张力具有实际应用。例如,反渗透可用于净化溶液和淡化海水。高渗溶液有助于保存食物。例如,将食物包装在盐中或在糖或盐的高渗溶液中酸洗会产生高渗环境,杀死微生物或至少限制其繁殖能力。高渗溶液还使食物和其他物质脱水,因为水离开细胞或通过膜以试图建立平衡。术语“高渗”和“低渗”经常使学生感到困惑,因为他们忽略了对学习框架的考虑。例如,如果将细胞置于盐溶液中,则盐溶液比细胞血浆更高渗(更浓)。但是,如果从细胞内部观察情况,可以认为等离子体对盐水是低渗的。

美国波莫纳生物Essay代写:血液细胞

Red blood cells are a typical example used to explain tension. When the salt (ion) concentration in the blood cells is the same as the outside, the solution is isotonic with respect to the cells, and they assume a normal shape and size. If the extracellular solute is less than its internal solute, for example, if you put red blood cells into fresh water, the solution (water) is hypotonic relative to the interior of the red blood cells. When water is flushed into the cells in an attempt to bring the concentrations of the internal and external solutions the same, the cells swell and may rupture. Incidentally, because hypotonic solutions can cause cell rupture, this is one of the reasons why a person is more likely to be submerged in fresh water than fresh water. If you drink too much water, this is also a problem. If the extracellular solute concentration is higher than the intracellular concentration, if red blood cells are placed in the concentrated salt solution, the salt solution is hypertonic with respect to the interior of the cell. Red blood cells experience wrinkles, which means they shrink and shrink as the water leaves the cells until the solute concentrations are the same inside and outside the red blood cells. The tension of the handling solution has practical applications. For example, reverse osmosis can be used to purify solutions and desalinate seawater. Hypertonic solutions help preserve food. For example, packaging food in a salt or pickling in a hypertonic solution of sugar or salt creates a hypertonic environment that kills the microorganism or at least limits its ability to reproduce. Hypertonic solutions also dehydrate food and other materials as water leaves the cells or passes through the membrane in an attempt to establish a balance. The terms “hypertonic” and “hypotonic” often confuse students because they ignore the consideration of the learning framework. For example, if the cells are placed in a saline solution, the salt solution is more permeable (more concentrated) than the cellular plasma. However, if the situation is observed from inside the cell, it can be considered that the plasma is hypotonic to the brine.

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