公路催眠是自动化现象的一个例子。自动性是指在不自觉地思考它们的情况下执行操作的能力。人们总是自动执行日常活动,例如步行,骑自行车或执行学习和练习的技能,例如针织。掌握一项技能后,可以在专注于其他任务的同时执行该技能。例如,熟练驾驶汽车的人可以在驾驶时计划购物清单。因为意识流指向另一个任务,所以可以发生驾驶时间的部分或完全健忘。虽然“自动驾驶”可能看起来很危险,但自动驾驶实际上可能优于专业或熟练驾驶员的有意识驾驶。在心理学家George Humphrey之后的“蜈蚣困境”或“汉弗莱定律”的寓言之后,这被称为“蜈蚣效应”。在寓言中,一只蜈蚣像往常一样走着,直到另一只动物问它是如何用这么多脚移动的。当蜈蚣想到走路时,它的脚就会纠缠在一起。汉弗莱以另一种方式描述了这种现象,“没有一个熟练从事交易的人需要不断关注日常工作。如果他这样做,那么这项工作很容易被破坏。”在驾驶的背景下,对所执行的动作进行过于严格的思考可能会使技能恶化。对于大多数驾驶员而言,他们所经历的沉闷恍惚状态实际上是在驾驶时睡着而不是催眠状态。当一个经历真正的高速公路催眠的人自动扫描环境中的威胁并向大脑发出危险警报时,疲惫的驾驶员开始体验隧道视觉并降低对其他驾驶员和障碍物的认识。根据美国国家公路交通安全管理局的报告,疲劳驾驶每年造成100,000多次碰撞,约1550人死亡。昏昏欲睡的驾驶非常危险,因为它会增加反应时间并损害协调,判断力和记忆力。大量研究表明,睡眠不足的驾驶比在0.05%血液酒精含量的影响下驾驶更危险。公路催眠和疲劳驾驶之间的区别在于,它可以在清醒时体验自动性。另一方面,疲劳驾驶会导致车轮入睡。

美国波莫纳学院人体学Essay代写:公路催眠与疲劳驾驶

Highway hypnosis is an example of the phenomenon of automaticity. Automaticity is the ability to perform actions without consciously thinking about them. People perform daily activities automatically all the time, such as walking, riding a bike, or performing a learned and practiced skill, such as knitting. Once a skill is mastered, it’s possible to perform it while focusing on other tasks. For example, a person skilled at driving a car can plan a grocery list while driving. Because the stream of consciousness is directed at the other task, partial or complete amnesia of the time spent driving can occur. While driving “on automatic” may seem hazardous, automaticity may actually be superior to conscious driving for professional or skilled drivers. This is called the “centipede effect” after the fable of the “centipede’s dilemma” or “Humphrey’s law” after psychologist George Humphrey. In the fable, a centipede was walking along as usual until another animal asked it how it moved with so many feet. When the centipede thought about walking, its feet became entangled. Humphrey described the phenomenon another way, “No man skilled at a trade needs to put his constant attention on the routine work. If he does, the job is apt to be spoiled.” In the context of driving, thinking too hard about the actions being performed may worsen the skill.

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