在淡水中溺水不同于在盐水中溺水。对于一个人来说,更多的人淹没在淡水中而不是盐水中。大约90%的溺水发生在淡水中,包括游泳池,浴缸和河流。这部分是因为水的化学性质以及它如何影响渗透。溺水涉及在水中窒息。您甚至不需要在水中呼吸,但如果您吸入盐水,高盐浓度将阻止水进入您的肺组织。当人们淹没在盐水中时,通常是因为他们无法吸收氧气或排出二氧化碳。在盐水中呼吸会在空气和肺部之间形成物理屏障。吸入盐水的人在去除盐水之前将无法再次呼吸。但是,这并不意味着不会产生挥之不去的影响。盐水对肺细胞中的离子浓度是高渗的,所以如果吞下它,血液中的水会进入肺部以补偿浓度差异。这会导致你的血液变稠,给你的循环系统带来压力。心脏受到极大的压力可能会在8到10分钟内导致心脏骤停。好消息是,通过饮用水补充血液相对容易,所以如果你在最初的经历中存活下来,你就可以恢复健康。令人惊讶的是,即使您避免溺水,您也可能因为呼吸淡水而死亡。这是因为相对于离子,淡水比肺细胞内的液体更“稀释”。淡水不会进入你的皮肤细胞,因为角蛋白基本上会使它们防水,但是水会涌入未受保护的肺细胞,试图平衡细胞膜上的浓度梯度。这可能会导致大量组织损伤,因此即使从肺部排出水,仍有可能无法恢复。

美国波士顿学院生物工程论文代写:盐水溺水

Drowning in fresh water is different from drowning in salt water. For a person, more people are drowning in fresh water than in salt water. About 90% of the drowning occurs in fresh water, including swimming pools, bathtubs and rivers. This is partly due to the chemical nature of the water and how it affects penetration. Drowning involves suffocating in the water. You don’t even need to breathe in the water, but if you inhale salt water, high salt concentrations will prevent water from entering your lung tissue. When people are submerged in salt water, it is usually because they cannot absorb oxygen or emit carbon dioxide. Breathing in saline creates a physical barrier between the air and the lungs. People who inhale salt water will not be able to breathe again before removing salt water. However, this does not mean that there will be no lingering effects. The concentration of ions in the lung cells is hypertonic, so if swallowed, the water in the blood will enter the lungs to compensate for the difference in concentration. This can cause your blood to thicken and put pressure on your circulatory system. Extreme stress on the heart can cause cardiac arrest within 8 to 10 minutes. The good news is that it’s relatively easy to replenish blood through drinking water, so if you survive the initial experience, you can recover. Surprisingly, even if you avoid drowning, you may die from breathing fresh water. This is because fresh water is more “dilute” than the liquid in the lung cells relative to the ions. Fresh water does not enter your skin cells, because keratin basically makes them waterproof, but water can pour into unprotected lung cells, trying to balance the concentration gradient on the cell membrane. This can cause a lot of tissue damage, so even if water is drained from the lungs, it may not recover.

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