在社会学领域,有一个主要的理论和实践的分歧,那就是研究社会的宏观和微观方法之间的划分。虽然它们常常被看成是相互竞争的观点——宏观上关注社会结构、模式和趋势的大局,微观上关注个人经历和日常生活的细节——但它们实际上是互补和相互依存的。功能主义视角又称功能主义,起源于法国社会学家杜尔凯姆的作品,杜尔凯姆是社会学的创始人之一。涂尔干的兴趣在于社会秩序如何可能,以及社会如何保持稳定。他关于这个话题的著作被看作功能主义观点的精髓,但是其他的包括赫伯特·斯宾塞、塔尔科特·帕森斯和罗伯特·K·默顿,都对此作出了贡献并加以完善。功能主义视角是宏观理论层面的运作。互动主义观点是由美国社会学家乔治·赫伯特·米德发展而来的。它是一种微观的理论方法,侧重于理解意义是如何通过社会互动过程产生的。这种观点认为,意义来源于日常的社会互动,因而是一种社会结构。另一个突出的理论视角,即符号互动,是由另一个美国人赫伯特·布鲁默从互动主义范式发展而来的。这个理论,你可以在这里读到更多,集中在我们如何使用符号,比如衣服,来互相交流;我们如何创造、保持、向周围的人呈现一个连贯的自我,以及我们如何通过社会互动来创造和保持对社会的某种理解,以及里面发生了什么。冲突视角源于马克思的著作,并假设当资源、地位和权力在社会中的群体之间分配不均时,就会产生冲突。根据这一理论,由于不平等而产生的冲突是促成社会变革的因素。从冲突的角度来看,权力可以采取控制物质资源和财富、政治和构成社会的制度的形式,并且可以根据一个人相对于他人的社会地位(如种族、阶级和性别等)来衡量。与此观点相关的其他社会学家和学者包括安东尼奥·葛兰西、C·赖特·米尔斯以及法兰克福学派的成员,他们发展了批判理论。

美国杜克大学社会学Essay代写: 宏观和微观

In the field of sociology, there is a major difference between theory and practice, that is, the division between macro and micro methods of studying society. Although they are often seen as competing perspectives – focusing on the overall situation of social structure, patterns and trends at the macro level, and on the details of personal experience and daily life at the micro level – they are actually complementary and interdependent. Functionalist perspective, also known as functionalism, originated from the works of French sociologist Durkheim, one of the founders of sociology. Durkheim’s interest lies in how social order is possible and how society remains stable. His works on this topic are regarded as the essence of the functionalist view, but others, including Herbert Spencer, Tarkot Parsons and Robert K. Merton, have contributed to and improved it. Functionalist perspective is the operation of macro-theoretical level. Interactionism was developed by George Herbert Mead, an American sociologist. It is a micro-theoretical method, focusing on understanding how meaning is generated through the process of social interaction. This view holds that meaning comes from everyday social interaction and is therefore a social structure. Another prominent theoretical perspective, symbolic interaction, was developed from the interactive paradigm by another American, Herbert Bloomer. You can read more about this theory here, focusing on how we use symbols, such as clothes, to communicate with each other, how we create, maintain and present a coherent self to the people around us, and how we create and maintain a certain understanding of society through social interaction, and what happens inside. Why? The conflict perspective originates from Marx’s works and assumes that when resources, status and power are unevenly distributed among groups in society, conflicts will occur. According to this theory, conflicts arising from inequality are factors contributing to social change. From the perspective of conflict, power can take the form of controlling material resources and wealth, politics and the institutions that make up society, and can be measured by a person’s social status relative to others (such as race, class, gender, etc.). Other sociologists and scholars associated with this view include Antonio Gramsci, C. Wright Mills and members of the Frankfurt School, who developed critical theory.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注