性别社会学是社会学中最大的子领域之一,其特征是理论和研究,批判性地探讨性别的社会建构,性别如何与社会中的其他社会力量相互作用,以及性别如何与整体社会结构相关。该子领域的社会学家通过各种研究方法研究广泛的主题,包括身份,社会互动,权力和压迫,以及性别与其他事物如种族,阶级,文化,宗教和性行为之间的相互作用。其他。要理解性别社会学,首先必须了解社会学家如何定义性别和性别。虽然男性/女性和男性/女性经常在英语中混淆,但实际上它们指的是两种截然不同的东西:性别和性别。前者,性,被社会学家理解为基于生殖器官的生物分类。大多数人属于男性和女性的类别,然而,有些人天生具有不明显适合任何一类的性器官,他们被称为双性人。无论哪种方式,性是基于身体部位的生物分类。另一方面,性别是基于一个人的身份,自我表现,行为和与他人互动的社会分类。社会学家将性别视为学习行为和文化产生的身份,因此,它是一种社会范畴。当人们比较男女在不同文化中的行为方式,以及在某些文化和社会中,其他性别如何存在时,性别是一种社会结构变得尤为明显。在像美国这样的西方工业化国家,人们倾向于以二分法来看待男性气质和女性气质,将男性和女性视为截然不同和对立的人。然而,其他文化挑战了这种假设,对男性气质和女性气质的看法不那么明显。例如,历史上纳瓦霍文化中有一类人称为berdaches,他们在解剖学上是正常的男性,但被定义为被认为属于男性和女性之间的第三种性别。 Berdaches与其他普通人(不是Berdaches)结婚,虽然他们都不像今天的西方文化那样被认为是同性恋者。这表明我们通过社会化过程学习性别。对于许多人来说,这个过程在他们出生之前就开始了,父母根据胎儿的性别选择性别名称,并通过装饰婴儿的房间并以彩色编码和性别化的方式选择玩具和衣服。文化期望和刻板印象。然后,从婴儿期开始,我们就会受到家庭,教育工作者,宗教领袖,同龄人群体以及更广泛的社区的社交,他们根据他们是将我们描述为男孩还是以男孩为代表,在外表和行为方面向我们传达了我们的期望。女孩。媒体和流行文化在教育我们性别方面也发挥着重要作用。性别社会化的一个结果是性别认同的形成,这是一个人对自己作为男人或女人的定义。性别认同塑造了我们对他人和自己的看法,也影响了我们的行为。例如,药物和酒精滥用,暴力行为,抑郁和积极驾驶的可能性存在性别差异。正如“规范”标准所衡量的那样,性别认同对我们如何着装和呈现自己,以及我们希望我们的身体看起来像什么一样具有特别强烈的影响。

美国杜克大学社会学Essay代写:性别社会学

The sociology of gender is one of the largest subfields within sociology and features theory and research that critically interrogates the social construction of gender, how gender interacts with other social forces in society, and how gender relates to social structure overall. Sociologists within this subfield study a wide range of topics with a variety of research methods, including things like identity, social interaction, power and oppression, and the interaction of gender with other things like race, class, culture, religion, and sexuality, among others. To understand the sociology of gender one must first understand how sociologists define gender and sex. Though male/female and man/woman are often conflated in the English language, they actually refer to two very different things: sex and gender. The former, sex, is understood by sociologists to be a biological categorization based on reproductive organs. Most people fall into the categories of male and female, however, some people are born with sex organs that do not clearly fit either category, and they are known as intersex. Either way, sex is a biological classification based on body parts. Gender, on the other hand, is a social classification based on one’s identity, presentation of self, behavior, and interaction with others. Sociologists view gender as learned behavior and a culturally produced identity, and as such, it is a social category. That gender is a social construct becomes especially apparent when one compares how men and women behave across different cultures, and how in some cultures and societies, other genders exist too. In Western industrialized nations like the U.S., people tend to think of masculinity and femininity in dichotomous terms, viewing men and women as distinctly different and opposites. Other cultures, however, challenge this assumption and have less distinct views of masculinity and femininity. For example, historically there was a category of people in the Navajo culture called berdaches, who were anatomically normal men but who were defined as a third gender considered to fall between male and female. Berdaches married other ordinary men (not Berdaches), although neither was considered homosexual, as they would be in today’s Western culture. What this suggests is that we learn gender through the process of socialization. For many people, this process begins before they are even born, with parents selecting gendered names on the basis of the sex of a fetus, and by decorating the incoming baby’s room and selecting its toys and clothes in color-coded and gendered ways that reflect cultural expectations and stereotypes. Then, from infancy on, we are socialized by family, educators, religious leaders, peer groups, and the wider community, who teach us what is expected from us in terms of appearance and behavior based on whether they code us as a boy or a girl. Media and popular culture play important roles in teaching us gender too. One result of gender socialization is the formation of gender identity, which is one’s definition of oneself as a man or woman. Gender identity shapes how we think about others and ourselves and also influences our behaviors. For example, gender differences exist in the likelihood of drug and alcohol abuse, violent behavior, depression, and aggressive driving. Gender identity also has an especially strong effect on how we dress and present ourselves, and what we want our bodies to look like, as measured by “normative” standards.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注