Christmas is a public holiday in Russia, and many Christian Russians celebrate this as one of the most important festivals of the year. Although some Russian Christmas traditions are similar to Western traditions, other traditions are related to Russia, reflecting Russia’s rich history and traditions associated with Russian Orthodox Church. In Russia, celebrate Christmas on January 7. Many Russian Christmas traditions originated from pagan cultures earlier than Russian Christianity. The long-standing Russian Christmas customs include carols, fortune-telling, and forty days of rigorous Christmas activities on Christmas Eve. Many of the Christmas customs of Russia originated from the pagan culture that existed in Russia before the arrival of Christianity. From the end of December to mid-January, the pagan rituals are designed to bring about a bumper harvest year. When Christianity arrived in Russia, these rituals changed and merged with the new custom of reaching religion, creating a unique mixture of Christmas traditions that is still observed in Russia. According to the Julian calendar observed by the Russian Orthodox Church, the Russian Orthodox Church Christmas was celebrated on January 7. Currently, the difference between the Gregorian calendar and the Julian calendar is 13 days. From 2100 onwards, the difference will increase to 14 days, so we will celebrate Russian Christmas from January 8th until the next increase. During the Soviet era, Christmas and all other church holidays were banned (although many continued to secretly celebrate them).