经济制裁最常被概念化为实现外交政策目标的工具。它们被认为是政治家在试图影响其他国家行为时可以使用的外交政策“工具包”(一系列措施,包括外交,宣传,秘密行动,使用武力等等)的一部分。 。外交政策概念包括简单和更复杂的版本。在简单版本中,经济制裁的目的是改变或防止目标的“令人反感”的政策或行为,如果政策或行为与发件人的外交政策目标相冲突,则理解为“令人反感”。然而,经常批评经济制裁的是 – 如果这些是他们的目标 – 那么经济制裁就不起作用了。也就是说,他们通常无法改变或阻止目标的令人反感的政策或行为(Nossal,1989)。这种担忧导致一些人提出这样一个问题:如果经济制裁不起作用,为什么我们继续使用它们呢?试图回答这个问题已经导致一些理论家发展出更复杂的经济制裁概念。例如,有人认为,虽然改变目标的“令人反感”的政策或行为有时是经济制裁的目标,但政客们往往采用更加微妙和微妙的方式实施经济制裁(Baldwin,1985,Cortright&Lopez,2000)。

美国杜克大学政治学Essay代写:经济制裁在外交中的作用

Economic sanctions are most commonly conceptualised as being tools for achieving foreign policy goals. They are considered part of the foreign policy ‘toolkit’ (a range of measures that includes diplomacy, propaganda, covert action, the use of military force, and so forth) that politicians have at their disposal when attempting to influence the behaviour of other states. The foreign policy conception comes in both simple and more sophisticated versions. In the simple version, the objective of economic sanctions is to change or prevent a target’s ‘objectionable’ policy or behaviour where a policy or behaviour is understood to be ‘objectionable’ if it conflicts with the foreign policy goals of the sender. However, a frequent criticism of economic sanctions is that—if these are their goals—then economic sanctions don’t work. That is, they usually fail to change or prevent a target’s objectionable policy or behaviour (Nossal, 1989). This concern has led some to ask the question: if economic sanctions don’t work, why do we keep using them? The attempt to answer this question has led some theorists to develop more sophisticated conceptions of economic sanctions. It has been argued, for instance, that although changing a target’s ‘objectionable’ policy or behaviour is sometimes the objective of economic sanctions, politicians often employ economic sanctions in much more nuanced and subtle ways (Baldwin, 1985, Cortright & Lopez, 2000).

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