保护主义是一种防御性的,往往出于政治动机,政策意在通过贸易壁垒,如对进口货物和服务的关税和配额征收免受外国竞争保护一个国家的企业,行业,和工人,与其他政府法规一起。保护主义被认为与自由贸易相反,后者是完全没有政府对贸易的限制。 从历史上看,严格的保护主义主要是由新兴发展中国家使用,因为它们建立了国际竞争所必需的产业。虽然这种所谓的“婴儿产业”论点可能会对所涉及的企业和工人提供简短而有限的保护,但它最终会通过降低整体贸易成本来增加进口必需品和工人的成本,从而损害消费者的利益。传统上,政府采用四种主要方法来实施保护主义政策:进口关税,进口配额,产品标准和补贴。最常用的保护主义做法,关税,也称为“关税”,是对特定进口货物征收的税。由于关税是由进口商支付的,因此当地市场的进口商品价格会上涨。关税的概念是使进口产品对消费者的吸引力低于当地生产的产品,从而保护当地企业及其工人。最着名的关税之一是1930年的斯莫特 – 霍利关税。最初旨在保护美国农民免受二战后欧洲农业进口的影响,最终由国会批准的法案增加了许多其他进口产品的高关税。当欧洲国家进行报复时,由此产生的贸易战限制了全球贸易,损害了所有有关国家的经济。在美国,斯穆特 – 霍利关税被认为是一种过度保护主义的措施,它使大萧条的严重程度恶化。贸易配额是“非关税”贸易壁垒,限制了在一段时间内可以进口的特定产品的数量。限制某种进口产品的供应,同时提高消费者支付的价格,使当地生产者有机会通过填补未满足的需求来改善其在市场中的地位。历史上,汽车,钢铁和消费电子等行业使用贸易配额来保护国内生产商免受外国竞争。例如,自20世纪80年代初以来,美国对进口原糖和含糖产品征收了配额。从那时起,世界糖价平均每磅5至13美分,而美国的价格则在20至24美分之间。

美国哈弗福特学院经济学论文代写:保护主义

Protectionism is defensive and often politically motivated. Policies are intended to pass trade barriers, such as tariffs and quotas on imported goods and services, from foreign competition to protect a country’s businesses, industries, and workers, and others. Government regulations together. Protectionism is considered to be the opposite of free trade, which is completely without government restrictions on trade. Historically, strict protectionism has been used primarily by emerging developing countries because they have established the industries necessary for international competition. While this so-called “infant industry” argument may provide short and limited protection for the businesses and workers involved, it will ultimately increase the cost of importing necessities and workers by reducing overall trade costs, thereby damaging consumer interests. . Traditionally, the government has adopted four main methods to implement protectionist policies: import tariffs, import quotas, product standards, and subsidies. The most common protectionist approach, tariffs, also known as “tariffs,” are taxes imposed on certain imported goods. Since tariffs are paid by importers, the price of imported goods in the local market will rise. The concept of tariffs is to make imported products less attractive to consumers than locally produced products, thereby protecting local businesses and their workers. One of the most famous tariffs is the 1930 Smoot-Hawley Tariff. Originally designed to protect American farmers from the impact of European agricultural imports after World War II, the bill approved by Congress eventually increased the high tariffs on many other imported products. When European countries retaliate, the resulting trade wars limit global trade and damage the economies of all countries concerned. In the United States, the Smoot-Hawley Tariff is considered an overprotective measure that worsens the severity of the Great Depression. Trade quotas are “non-tariff” trade barriers that limit the number of specific products that can be imported over a period of time. Limiting the supply of certain imported products while increasing the price paid by consumers, giving local producers the opportunity to improve their position in the market by filling unmet needs. Historically, industries such as automobiles, steel and consumer electronics have used trade quotas to protect domestic producers from foreign competition. For example, since the early 1980s, the United States has imposed quotas on imported raw sugar and sugar-containing products. Since then, world sugar prices have averaged 5 to 13 cents per pound, while in the United States, prices have ranged between 20 and 24 cents.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注