虽然政府有权制定公共禁烟令,但限制私人吸烟的法律没有合法依据。我们也可以通过禁止人们进食过多,睡眠过少,不吃药或从事高压力工作的法律。规范个人行为的法律可以基于三个理由来证明:“伤害原则”,其中规定,如果法律禁止个人对他人造成伤害,则法律是合理的。对于严格的公民自由主义者来说,这是法律的唯一合法依据。危害原则法的例子包括大量的刑法 – 涉及谋杀,抢劫,殴打,欺诈等的法律。道德法,防止个人参与冒犯当权者的感情的行为,无论其是否伤害他人。大多数道德法律法规都与性有关。道德法的例子包括大多数淫秽物品法,鸡奸法和禁止同性婚姻的法律。家长作风,阻止个人从事对自己有害的行为。虽然道德法往往是一种保守的观念,但家长作风的逻辑在自由主义者中更为普遍。家长作风法的例子包括管理私人吸毒的法律。家长式的逻辑(“停止或你会失明!”)也经常与道德法一起用来规范性活动。

美国加州理工大学Essay代写:香烟应该是非法的吗?

While the government has the power to enact public smoking bans, there is no legitimate basis for laws restricting private smoking. We may as well pass laws prohibiting people from eating too much, or sleeping too little, or skipping medication, or taking on high-stress jobs. Laws regulating personal conduct can be justified on three grounds: The Harm Principle, which states that laws are justified if they prevent individuals from causing harm to others. For strict civil libertarians, this is the only legitimate basis of law. Examples of Harm Principle laws include the vast bulk of the criminal code–laws dealing with murder, robbery, assault, fraud, and so forth. Morality Law, which prevent individuals from engaging in conduct that is offensive to the sensibilities of those in power, regardless of whether or not it harms others. Most Morality Law statutes have something to do with sex. Examples of Morality Laws include most obscenity laws, sodomy laws, and laws banning same-sex marriage. Paternalism, which prevents individuals from engaging in conduct that is harmful to themselves. While Morality Law tends to be a conservative idea, the logic of Paternalism is generally more common among liberals. Examples of Paternalism laws include, well, laws regulating private drug use. The logic of Paternalism (“Stop or you’ll go blind!”) is also frequently used in conjunction with Morality Law to regulate sexual activities.

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