最广泛意义上的“进化”一词指的是以特定顺序发生的变化或增长。虽然这个术语的广泛版本将包括天文演化和计算机设计的演变,但本文着重于生物有机体的进化。这个术语的使用可以追溯到古希腊人,但今天这个词更常被用来指代达尔文的自然选择进化论。这种理论有时被粗略地称为“适者生存”理论。 1859年,查尔斯·达尔文(Charles Darwin)在“物种起源”(The Origin of Species)中提出,1858年由阿尔弗雷德·华莱士(Alfred Wallace)独立提出 – 尽管华莱士与达尔文不同,他说人类的灵魂不是进化的产物。希腊文和中世纪对“进化论”的引用将其用作自然状态的描述性术语,其中自然界中的一切都具有某种顺序或目的。这是对自然的目的论观点。例如,亚里士多德将所有生物体分层次地分类在他的大自然或存在的大链中,植物位于底部,通过较小的动物移动,并在创造的顶峰上移动到人类,每个生物在形式上逐渐变得更加完美。正是奥古斯丁这样的中世纪哲学家开始将自然的目的论观点与宗教结合起来:上帝是所有生物的设计者,一切都有他所命定的目的和地位。

美国密尔沃基Essay代写:进化史

The word “evolution” in its broadest sense refers to change or growth that occurs in a particular order. Although this broad version of the term would include astronomical evolution and the evolution of computer design, this article focuses on the evolution of biological organisms. That use of the term dates back to the ancient Greeks, but today the word is more often used to refer to Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. This theory is sometimes crudely referred to as the theory of “survival of the fittest.” It was proposed by Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species in 1859 and, independently, by Alfred Wallace in 1858—although Wallace, unlike Darwin, said the human soul is not the product of evolution. Greek and medieval references to “evolution” use it as a descriptive term for a state of nature, in which everything in nature has a certain order or purpose. This is a teleological view of nature. For example, Aristotle classified all living organisms hierarchically in his great scala naturae or Great Chain of Being, with plants at the bottom, moving through lesser animals, and on to humans at the pinnacle of creation, each becoming progressively more perfect in form. It was the medieval philosophers, such as Augustine, who began to incorporate teleological views of nature with religion: God is the designer of all creatures, and everything has a purpose and a place as ordained by Him.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注