在过去的几十年里,我们社会对性别和性的理解发生了翻天覆地的变化,语言逐渐演变为反映出一系列美丽而复杂的身份。这种进化可以感觉它发生得很快,并且出现的新概念经常要求我们质疑我们已经教过的关于性别和性的某些核心信念。感到困惑或努力跟上并不常见。我们已经分解了一些基础知识并编译了这些资源,以帮助您了解可能遇到的一些常见术语以及它们的使用方法。性与性别。那么,什么是性?我们大多数人都被教导只有两种生理性别,男性和女性。在您第一次呼吸后不久,医生很可能会检查您,并为您指定这两种性别中的一种。然而,对于双性人,也被称为性发育差异的人,男性和女性的类别不一定适合。在考虑性发育差异的人时,研究人员认为,有多达五到七种常见的生理性别,并且性别实际上存在于具有许多不同变化的连续体中。据估计,多达1.7%的人口存在性别分化的差异。这比你想象的要常见得多!但是,我们如何才能使性别合格?同样,这是一个棘手的主题,甚至科学家似乎也不能完全同意。你的性别是由你的生殖器决定的吗?你的染色体?你的主要性激素?它是三者的组合吗?对于性发育不同的人,生殖器,染色体和主要性激素可能与男性或女性的“正常”不同。例如,患有Kleinfelter综合症的人通常在出生时被分配为男性,但是具有XXY染色体并且可能具有低睾酮水平和其他物理变化,例如宽臀部和扩大的胸部组织。事实上,双性人有明显的需求,男性和女性的类别根本没有用。跨性别者,或者在出生时被指定与性别认同不一致的人,也会质疑生物性别的类别。对于那些选择通过激素替代疗法使睾丸激素或雌激素成为主要激素而进行身体转变的变性人,通过胸部或生殖器确认手术,或两者兼而有之,这些生理性行为的标记可能不再像我们一样排队被教导期待。例如,一个变性男人,或者在出生时被指定为女性但被认定为男性的人,可能有阴道,XX染色体和睾丸激素作为他的主要激素。尽管他的染色体和生殖器与我们认为的男性的典型不同,但他仍然是男性。生物性别比我们想象的要少一些,干嘛?这让我想到了另一个重要的区别:性别。我们大多数人也被教导相信只有两种性别,男人和女人。我们被告知,男性是出生时被分配为男性的人,而女性是出生时被分配为女性的人。但是,正如许多人在过去几十年中已经开始理解的那样,性别没有任何普遍性或天生性。性别角色随着时间的推移而变化并且不同文化之间的差异这一事实使人质疑性别是固定的观点。你知道粉红色曾被认为是男孩的颜色吗?这表明,性别实际上是一种社会认同的规范体系,决定了特定社会中男孩和女孩,男人和女人的行为方式。更重要的是,人们越来越开始明白性别认同,或个人如何理解性别,实际上是一种光谱。这意味着,无论您在出生时被分配到哪种性别,您都可以认定为男性,女性,或者在这两个类别之间的任何地方。如果你是顺性,这意味着你的性别认同与你出生时分配的性别对齐。因此,一个在出生时被指定为女性并且被认定为女性的人是一个顺性女性,并且在出生时被指定为男性且被认定为男性的人是顺便男性。你可能会对标记为cisgender感到奇怪,但它实际上只是对不同体验进行分类的有用方法。如果你是变性人,正如我之前解释的那样,这意味着你的性别与出生时分配的性别不一致。这意味着变性男人是指在出生时被指定为女性并且被认定为男性的人,而变性女性则是在出生时被分配为男性且被确定为女性的人。

美国南加州大学社会学论文代写:性别

Over the last several decades, our society’s understanding of gender and sexuality has changed drastically and language has evolved to reflect a beautiful, complex spectrum of identities. This evolution can feel like it’s happened very quickly, and the new concepts that have arisen often ask us to call into question certain core beliefs we’ve been taught about gender and sexuality. It’s not uncommon to feel confused or to struggle to keep up. We’ve broken down some of the basics and compiled this resource to help you understand some common terms you might encounter and how they’re used. Sex and Gender. So, what is sex? Most of us are taught that there are only two biological sexes, male and female. Shortly after your first breath, a doctor most likely examined you and assigned you one of those two sexes. However, for intersex people, also referred to as people with differences of sexual development, the categories of male and female don’t necessarily fit. In considering people with differences of sexual development, researchers have argued that there are as many as five to seven common biological sexes and that sex actually exists along a continuum with many different variations. Estimates suggest that as much as 1.7 percent of the population has some variation of sexual differentiation. It’s much more common than you might think! But, how do we qualify sex? Again, it’s a tricky subject that even scientists can’t seem to quite agree on. Is your sex determined by your genitals? By your chromosomes? By your predominant sex hormones? Is it a combination of the three? For folks with differences of sexual development, genitals, chromosomes, and predominant sex hormones can vary from what is considered “normal” for males or females. For example, people with Kleinfelter Syndrome are often assigned male at birth, but have XXY chromosomes and may have low testosterone levels and other physical variations such as wide hips and enlarged chest tissue. Indeed, intersex folks have distinct needs for which the categories of male and female simply aren’t useful. Transgender people, or folks who were assigned a sex at birth that doesn’t align with their gender identity, also call into question the category of biological sex. For those transgender people who have chosen to pursue physical transition by taking hormone replacement therapy to make testosterone or estrogen their predominant hormone, by having chest or genital confirmation surgery, or both, these markers of biological sex again may not line up as we’ve been taught to expect. For instance, a transgender man, or someone who was assigned female at birth but identifies as a man, may have a vagina, XX chromosomes, and testosterone as his predominant hormone. Despite the fact that his chromosomes and genitals differ from what we consider typical for males, he is still male. Biological sex is a little less cut and dry than we thought, huh? Which brings me to another important distinction: gender. We’ve also mostly been taught to believe that there are only two genders, men and women. We’re told that men are people who were assigned male at birth and women are people who were assigned female at birth. But, as many folks have begun to understand over the last several decades, there is nothing universal or innate about gender. The fact that gender roles shift over time and tend to differ between cultures calls into question the idea that gender is a fixed thing. Did you know pink used to be considered a boy’s color? This shows that gender is actually a system of socially agreed upon norms that determine how boys and girls, men and women in a given society are expected to behave. What’s more, people are increasingly beginning to understand that gender identity, or how an individual understands their gender, is actually a spectrum. This means that, regardless of the sex you were assigned at birth, you may identify as a man, a woman, or really anywhere in between those two categories. If you are cisgender, that means that your gender identity lines up with the sex you were assigned at birth. So, a person who was assigned female at birth and identifies as a woman is a cisgender woman, and a person who was assigned male at birth and identifies as a man is a cisgender man. You might feel weird about being labeled cisgender, but it’s actually just a useful way to classify different experiences. If you are transgender, as I explained earlier, that means that your gender doesn’t align with the sex you were assigned at birth. That means a transgender man is someone who was assigned female at birth and identifies as a man and a transgender woman is someone who was assigned male at birth and identifies as a woman.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注