1819年8月7日,西蒙·玻利瓦尔在现今的哥伦比亚与博亚卡河附近的战斗中与西班牙将军何塞·玛丽亚·巴雷罗交战。西班牙部队分散开来,玻利瓦尔能够杀死或占领几乎所有的敌方战斗人员。这是新格拉纳达(现哥伦比亚)解放的决定性战役。委内瑞拉和哥伦比亚被安第斯山脉的高层分开:部分地区几乎无法通行。然而,从1819年5月到7月,玻利瓦尔率领他的军队越过PáramodePisba的通行证。在13,000英尺(4,000米)处,通行证非常危险:致命的风将骨头冷却,冰雪困难,并且沟壑声称包装动物和男人跌倒。玻利瓦尔在十字路口失去了三分之一的军队,但在1819年7月初进入安第斯山脉西侧:西班牙人起初不知道他在那里。玻利瓦尔迅速重新集结并从新格拉纳达的热心人口中招募更多士兵。 7月25日,他的人员在巴尔加斯沼泽战役中与年轻的西班牙将军何塞·玛丽亚·巴雷罗的部队进行了接触:结束了平局,但向西班牙人展示了玻利瓦尔已经生效并前往波哥大。玻利瓦尔迅速前往Tunja镇,寻找巴雷罗的物资和武器。 1819年初,委内瑞拉处于战争状态:西班牙和爱国者将军和军阀在整个地区互相争斗。新格拉纳达是一个不同的故事:有一个不安的和平,因为民众由波哥大的西班牙总督胡安何塞德萨马诺用铁拳统治。西班牙玻利瓦尔,最伟大的叛军将军,在委内瑞拉,与西班牙将军巴勃罗·莫里洛决斗,但他知道,如果他能够到达新格拉纳达,波哥大实际上是不设防的。巴雷罗是一位技术娴熟的将军,拥有训练有素的退伍军人。然而,许多士兵都是从新格拉纳达征募的,毫无疑问,有些人对叛乱分子表示同情。巴雷罗在他能够到达波哥大之前就开始拦截玻利瓦尔。在先锋队中,他在精英努曼西亚营中拥有大约850名士兵和160名被称为龙骑兵的熟练骑兵。在军队的主体中,他有大约1800名士兵和3门大炮。它比玻利瓦尔计划的更好。桑坦德队将努曼西亚营和龙骑兵队的队伍锁定,而玻利瓦尔队和安索阿特吉将军则攻击震惊的,分散的主要西班牙军队。玻利瓦尔迅速包围了西班牙主人。 Barreiro被军队中最好的士兵包围并切断,他很快就投降了。总而言之,保皇党失去了200多人死亡,1600人被捕。爱国者队造成13人死亡,约50人受伤。这是玻利瓦尔的全面胜利。 8月7日,巴雷罗正在移动他的军队,试图让玻利瓦尔离开波哥大足够长的时间,以便增援抵达。到了下午,先锋队走了过来,在桥上过河。在那里,他们休息,等待主要军队赶上。比巴雷罗怀疑的更接近的玻利瓦尔来袭了。他命令弗朗西斯科·德·保拉桑坦德将军在他主力部队击退时保持精英先锋部队的占领。随着Barreiro的军队被击垮,Bolívar迅速前往SantafédeBogotá市,ViceroyJuanJosédeSámano是南美洲北部的西班牙官员。首都的西班牙人和保皇党人在夜间恐慌和逃离,尽其所能,离开家园,在某些情况下还有家人。 ViceroySámano本人是一个残忍的男人,担心爱国者的报应,所以他太快就离开了,打扮成一个农民。新近皈依的“爱国者”抢劫了他们前邻居的家园,直到1819年8月10日玻利瓦尔将这座城市无人居住并恢复秩序。

美国纽约大学历史学Assignment代写:博亚卡战役

On August 7, 1819, Simón Bolívar engaged Spanish General José María Barreiro in battle near the Boyaca River in present-day Colombia. The Spanish force was spread out and divided, and Bolívar was able to kill or capture almost all of the enemy combatants. It was the decisive battle for the liberation of New Granada (now Colombia). Venezuela and Colombia are divided by a high arm of the Andes Mountains: parts of it are practically impassible. From May to July of 1819, however, Bolivar led his army over the pass of Páramo de Pisba. At 13,000 feet (4,000 meters), the pass was extremely treacherous: deadly winds chilled the bones, snow and ice made footing difficult, and ravines claimed pack animals and men to falls. Bolivar lost a third of his army in the crossing, but made it to the western side of the Andes in early July, 1819: the Spanish at first had no idea he was there. Bolivar quickly regrouped and recruited more soldiers from the eager population of New Granada. His men engaged the forces of young Spanish general José María Barreiro at the battle of Vargas Swamp on July 25: it ended in a draw, but showed the Spanish that Bolívar had arrived in force and was headed for Bogota. Bolivar moved quickly to the town of Tunja, finding supplies and weapons meant for Barreiro. In early 1819, Venezuela was at war: Spanish and Patriot generals and warlords were fighting each other all over the region. New Granada was a different story: there was an uneasy peace, as the populace was ruled with an iron fist by Spanish Viceroy Juan José de Sámano from Bogota. Simon Bolivar, greatest of the rebel generals, was in Venezuela, dueling with Spanish General Pablo Morillo, but he knew that if he could just get to New Granada, Bogota was practically undefended. Barreiro was a skilled general who had a trained, veteran army. Many of the soldiers, however, had been conscripted from New Granada and doubtless there were some whose sympathies were with the rebels. Barreiro moved to intercept Bolivar before he could reach Bogota. In the vanguard he had some 850 men in the elite Numancia battalion and 160 skilled cavalry known as dragoons. In the main body of the army, he had about 1,800 soldiers and three cannons. It worked out even better than Bolivar had planned. Santander kept the Numancia Battalion and Dragoons pinned down, while Bolivar and General Anzoátegui attacked the shocked, spread-out main Spanish army. Bolívar quickly surrounded the Spanish host. Surrounded and cut off from the best soldiers in his army, Barreiro quickly surrendered. All told, the royalists lost more than 200 killed and 1,600 captured. The patriot forces lost 13 killed and about 50 wounded. It was a total victory for Bolívar. On August 7, Barreiro was moving his army, trying to get into position to keep Bolivar out of Bogota long enough for reinforcements to arrive. By the afternoon, the vanguard had gone ahead and crossed the river at a bridge. There they rested, waiting for the main army to catch up. Bolívar, who was much closer than Barreiro suspected, struck. He ordered General Francisco de Paula Santander to keep the elite vanguard forces occupied while he hammered away at the main force. With Barreiro’s army crushed, Bolívar quickly made for the city of Santa fé de Bogotá, where Viceroy Juan José de Sámano was the ranking Spanish official in Northern South America. The Spanish and royalists in the capital panicked and fled in the night, carrying all they could and leaving their homes and in some cases family members behind. Viceroy Sámano himself was a cruel man who feared the retribution of the patriots, so he, too quickly departed, dressed as a peasant. Newly-converted “patriots” looted the homes of their former neighbors until Bolívar took the city unopposed on August 10, 1819 and restored order.

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