Bracero计划 – 来自西班牙语,意思是“使用他的武器工作的人” – 是1942年8月4日美国和墨西哥政府之间发起的一系列法律和双边外交协议,它们都鼓励和允许墨西哥公民在根据短期劳动合同工作时暂时进入美国并留在美国。第一批墨西哥手镯工人于1942年9月27日被录取,到1964年该计划结束时,已有近460万墨西哥公民被合法雇用到美国工作,主要是在德克萨斯州,加利福尼亚州和太平洋地区的农场工作。西北。由于许多工人根据不同的合同多次返回,短工计划仍然是美国历史上最大的合同工计划。在先前,1917年年至1921年之间的早期双边墨西哥客座农场工人计划让墨西哥政府感到不满,因为许多支持者经历过种族和工资歧视.Bracero计划旨在解决第二次世界大战在美国造成的巨大劳动力短缺问题。各个年龄段的女性和男性都在工厂昼夜不停地工作,最健康,最强壮的年轻美国人正在为这场战争而战。由于大批美国农场工人加入军队或在国防工业中从事高薪工作,美国将墨西哥视为劳动力的现成来源。在墨西哥于1942年年6月1日向轴心国宣战后几天,美国总统富兰克林罗斯福要求国务院与墨西哥就进口外国劳工问题达成协议。向美国提供劳动力,使墨西哥能够在支持盟军战争的同时加强其自身的经济困境.Bracero计划是由罗斯福总统于1942年7月发布的一项行政命令建立的,并于1942年年8月4日正式启动,当时美国和墨西哥代表签署了墨西哥农业劳动协议。虽然计划只持续到战争结束,但计划在1951年由移民劳工协议延长,直到1964年底才终止。在该计划的22年期限内,美国雇主为近500万支持者提供了工作机会。在24个州。根据协议的基本条款,临时墨西哥农场工人的最低工资为每小时30美分,并保证体面的生活条件,包括卫生,住房和食物。该协议还承诺,将保护支撑工人免受种族歧视,例如被排除在公共设施之外,仅仅是“白人”。

美国普林斯顿大学社会学Essay代写:墨西哥劳工

Bracero Project – from Spanish, meaning “people who work with his weapons” – is a series of legal and bilateral diplomatic agreements initiated between the US and Mexican governments on August 4, 1942, which both encourage and allow Mexican citizens to Temporarily enter the United States and stay in the United States when working under a short-term labor contract. The first batch of Mexican bracelet workers were admitted on September 27, 1942. By the end of the program in 1964, nearly 4.6 million Mexican citizens had been legally employed to work in the United States, mainly in Texas, California and Farm work in the Pacific. northwest. Because many workers return multiple times under different contracts, the short-term program is still the largest contractor program in US history. Previously, the early bilateral Mexican guest farm worker program between 1917 and 1921 was dissatisfied with the Mexican government because many supporters had experienced racial and wage discrimination. The Bracero program was designed to address the problems caused by the Second World War in the United States. A huge labor shortage. Women and men of all ages work day and night in the factory, and the healthiest and strongest young Americans are fighting for this war. The United States sees Mexico as a ready-made source of labor because of the large number of American farm workers joining the military or doing high-paying jobs in the defense industry. A few days after Mexico declared war on the Axis Power on June 1, 1942, US President Franklin Roosevelt asked the State Department and Mexico to reach an agreement on importing foreign workers. Providing labor to the United States enables Mexico to strengthen its own economic woes while supporting the Allied war. The Bracer plan was established by an executive order issued by President Roosevelt in July 1942, and on August 4, 1942. The day was officially launched, when representatives of the United States and Mexico signed the Mexican Agricultural Labor Agreement. Although the plan only lasted until the end of the war, it was planned to be extended by the immigration labor agreement in 1951 and was not terminated until the end of 1964. During the 22-year period of the program, US employers provided jobs for nearly 5 million supporters. In 24 states. Under the basic terms of the agreement, the minimum wage for temporary Mexican farm workers is 30 cents per hour and guarantees decent living conditions, including sanitation, housing and food. The agreement also promises to protect workers from racial discrimination, such as being excluded from public facilities, just “whites”.

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