突触的轴突末端存储囊泡中的神经递质。当被动作电位刺激时,突触的突触小泡释放神经递质,其通过扩散穿过轴突末端和树突之间的小距离(突触间隙)。当神经递质结合树突上的受体时,信号被传递。神经递质在短时间内保留在突触间隙中。然后它通过再摄取过程返回突触前神经元,通过酶代谢或与受体结合。当神经递质与突触后神经元结合时,它可以激发它或抑制它。神经元通常与其他神经元相连,因此在任何给定时间神经元都可能受到多种神经递质的影响。如果激发刺激大于抑制效应,神经元将“激发”并产生动作电位,将神经递质释放到另一个神经元。因此,信号从一个小区传导到下一个小区。

美国乔治城大学Assignment代写:神经递质

The axon terminal of a synapse stores neurotransmitters in vesicles. When stimulated by an action potential, synaptic vesicles of a synapse release neurotransmitters, which cross the small distance (synaptic cleft) between an axon terminal and a dendrite via diffusion. When the neurotransmitter binds a receptor at the dendrite, the signal is communicated. The neurotransmitter remains in the synaptic cleft for a short time. Then it is either returned to the presynaptic neuron through the process of reuptake, metabolized by enzymes, or bound to the receptor. When a neurotransmitter binds to a postsynaptic neuron, it can either excite it or inhibit it. Neurons are often connected to other neurons, so at any given time a neuron may be subject to multiple neurotransmitters. If the stimulus for excitation is greater than the inhibitory effect, the neuron will “fire” and create an action potential that releases neurotransmitters to another neuron. Thus, a signal is conducted from one cell to the next.

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