雅利安可能是语言学领域中最被滥用和滥用的词汇之一。雅利安实际上意味着什么,它的含义是两个截然不同的东西。不幸的是,19世纪和20世纪初一些学者的错误导致了它与种族主义,反犹太主义和仇恨的联系。雅利安这个词来自伊朗和印度的古代语言。在公元前2000年左右,古代印度语 – 伊朗语的人可能习惯于认同自己这个词。这个古老的群体的语言是印欧语系的一个分支。从字面上看,雅利安这个词可能意味着高贵的一个。第一种印欧语言,即原始印欧语系,可能起源于里海以北的草原大约公元前3500年,沿着现在的中亚和东欧之间的边界。从那里,它遍布欧洲,南亚和中亚的大部分地区。这个家庭最南端的分支是印度 – 伊朗人。许多不同的古代人民讲印度 – 伊朗的女儿语言,包括从公元前800年到公元400年控制中亚大部分地区的游牧斯基泰人,以及现在伊朗的波斯人。印度 – 伊朗的女儿语言如何进入印度是一个有争议的话题;许多学者的理论认为,印度 – 伊朗的发言人,称雅利安人或印度 – 雅利安人,在公元前1800年左右从现在的哈萨克斯坦,乌兹别克斯坦和土库曼斯坦迁入印度西北部。根据这些理论,印度 – 雅利安人是西伯利亚西南部安德罗诺沃文化的后裔,他们与巴克斯特人交往并从中获得了印度 – 伊朗语。十九世纪和二十世纪初的语言学家和人类学家认为,“雅利安人入侵”取代了印度北部的原始居民,将他们驱赶到南方,在那里他们成为讲泰语的德拉威语民族的祖先。然而,遗传证据显示,公元前1800年左右,中亚和印度DNA混杂在一起,但它绝不是当地人口的完全替代品。今天一些印度教民族主义者拒绝相信梵文的圣语梵语来自中亚。他们坚持认为它是在印度内部发展起来的,即“出于印度的”假设。然而,在伊朗,波斯人和其他伊朗人民的语言起源远没有那么有争议。实际上,“伊朗”这个名字是“雅利安人的土地”或“雅利安人的地方”的波斯语。

美国圣路易斯华盛顿大学社会学Essay代写:’雅利安’的含义

Aryan is probably one of the most misused and abused words ever to come out of the field of linguistics. What the term Aryan actually means and what it has come to mean are two vastly different things. Unfortunately, errors by some scholars in the 19th and early 20th centuries brought about its association with racism, anti-Semitism, and hate. The word Aryan comes from the ancient languages of Iran and India. It was the term that ancient Indo-Iranian-speaking people likely used to identify themselves in the period around 2000 BCE. This ancient group’s language was one branch of the Indo-European language family. Literally the word Aryan may mean noble one. The first Indo-European language, known as Proto-Indo-European, likely originated around 3500 BCE in the steppe north of the Caspian Sea, along what is now the border between Central Asia and Eastern Europe. From there, it spread across much of Europe and South and Central Asia. The most southerly branch of the family was Indo-Iranian. A number of different ancient peoples spoke Indo-Iranian daughter languages, including the nomadic Scythians, who controlled much of Central Asia from 800 BCE to 400 CE, and the Persians of what is now Iran. How the Indo-Iranian daughter languages got to India is a controversial topic; many scholars have theorized that Indo-Iranian speakers, called Aryans or Indo-Aryans, moved into northwestern India from what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan around 1800 BCE. According to these theories, the Indo-Aryans were descendants of the Andronovo culture of southwest Siberia who interacted with the Bactrians and acquired the Indo-Iranian language from them. Nineteenth- and early-20th-century linguists and anthropologists believed that an “Aryan Invasion” displaced the original inhabitants of northern India, driving them all south, where they became the ancestors of the Dravidian-speaking peoples such as the Tamils. Genetic evidence, however, shows that there was some mixing of Central Asian and Indian DNA around 1800 BCE, but it was by no means a complete replacement of the local population. Some Hindu nationalists today refuse to believe that Sanskrit, which is the holy language of the Vedas, came from Central Asia. They insist that it developed within India itself, the “Out of India” hypothesis. In Iran, however, the linguistic origins of the Persians and other Iranian peoples is far less controversial. Indeed, the name “Iran” is Persian for “Land of the Aryans” or “Place of the Aryans.”

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