社会学家认识到,我们日常生活的许多方面都是由消费构成的。事实上,波兰社会学家齐格蒙特鲍曼在“消费生活”一书中写道,西方社会不再围绕生产行为进行组织,而是围绕着消费。这种转变始于二十世纪中期的美国,此后大多数生产工作都转移到海外,我们的经济转向零售和提供服务和信息。因此,我们大多数人都在消费而不是生产商品。在任何一天,人们都可以乘坐公共汽车,火车或汽车去上班;在需要电力,天然气,石油,水,纸张以及大量消费电子产品和数字商品的办公室工作;购买茶,咖啡或苏打水;去餐厅吃午饭或晚餐;拿起干洗;在药店购买健康和卫生用品;使用购买的杂货准备晚餐,然后在晚上看电视,享受社交媒体或阅读书籍。所有这些都是消费形式。因为消费对我们的生活方式至关重要,所以它在我们与他人建立的关系中具有重要意义。我们经常围绕消费行为与其他人一起组织探访,无论是坐下来作为家庭吃家常饭,参加带约会的电影,还是在商场购物游览朋友。此外,我们经常使用消费品通过赠送礼物来表达我们对他人的感受,或者特别是在提出与昂贵的珠宝结婚的行为中。消费也是庆祝世俗和宗教节日的核心方面,如圣诞节,情人节和万圣节。它甚至成为一种政治表达,就像我们购买道德生产或采购的商品,或参与购买或抵制某种产品或品牌。社会学家还将消费视为形成和表达个人和群体身份过程的重要部分。在亚文化:风格的意义,社会学家Dick Hebdige观察到,身份通常通过时尚选择来表达,这使我们能够将人们分类为赶时髦的人或表情符号。之所以发生这种情况,是因为我们选择了我们认为能说出我们是谁的消费品。我们的消费者选择通常意味着反映我们的价值观和生活方式,并在这样做时,向他人发送有关我们这种人的视觉信号。因为我们将某些价值观,身份和生活方式与消费品联系起来,所以社会学家认识到一些令人不安的影响跟随消费在社会生活中的中心地位。根据我们对消费者实践的解释,我们经常根据一个人的性格,社会地位,价值观和信仰,甚至他们的智慧做出假设,甚至没有意识到这一点。正因为如此,消费可以为社会中的排斥和边缘化过程提供服务,并可能导致阶级,种族或民族,文化,性和宗教之间的冲突。因此,从社会学的角度来看,消费远远超过了眼睛。事实上,关于消费的研究有很多,有一个完整的子领域专注于它:消费社会学。

美国约翰霍普金斯大学社会学Essay代写:消费社会学

Sociologists recognize that many aspects of our daily lives are made up of consumption. In fact, the Polish sociologist Ziegmont Bowman wrote in the book “Consumer Life” that Western society no longer organizes about production behavior, but around consumption. This shift began in the United States in the mid-20th century, after which most of the production was transferred overseas, and our economy turned to retail and service and information. Therefore, most of us are consuming rather than producing goods. On any given day, people can go to work by bus, train or car; work in offices that need electricity, gas, oil, water, paper and a lot of consumer electronics and digital goods; buy tea, coffee or soda; go to the restaurant Have lunch or dinner; pick up dry cleaning; buy health and hygiene items at the pharmacy; use the purchased groceries to prepare dinner, then watch TV at night, enjoy social media or read books. All of this is a form of consumption. Because consumption is vital to our way of life, it is important in our relationships with others. We often organize visits with other people around consumer behavior, whether it is sitting down as a family to eat, eating a movie with a date, or shopping at a mall to visit friends. In addition, we often use consumer goods to express our feelings about others by giving gifts, or especially in the act of marrying expensive jewelry. Consumption is also a core aspect of celebrating secular and religious festivals such as Christmas, Valentine’s Day and Halloween. It even becomes a political expression, like we buy goods that are ethically produced or procured, or participate in buying or resisting a product or brand. Sociologists also see consumption as an important part of the process of forming and expressing personal and group identity. In subculture: the meaning of style, sociologist Dick Hebdige observes that identity is often expressed through fashion choices, which allows us to classify people as hipsters or emojis. This happens because we have chosen what we think we can say about who we are. Our consumer choices often mean reflecting our values ​​and lifestyles, and in doing so, sending visual signals to others about us. Because we associate certain values, identities, and lifestyles with consumer goods, sociologists recognize that some disturbing effects follow the centrality of consumption in social life. Based on our interpretation of consumer practice, we often make assumptions based on one’s personality, social status, values ​​and beliefs, and even their wisdom, even without realizing it. Because of this, consumption can serve the process of exclusion and marginalization in society and can lead to conflicts between class, race or ethnicity, culture, sex and religion. Therefore, from a sociological point of view, consumption far exceeds the eye. In fact, there are many studies on consumption, and there is a complete sub-field focused on it: consumer sociology.

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