人权背后的理念要老得多,而且追踪起来要困难得多。诸如大宪章之类的权利声明历来采取了一种仁慈的君主的形式,授予他或她的臣民权利。这种观念在西方文化背景下发展,认为上帝是最终的君主,上帝赋予所有地球领袖应该尊重的权利。这是美国独立宣言的哲学基础,它开始于:我们认为这些真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物主赋予他们某些不可剥夺的权利,其中包括生命,自由和追求幸福。这不是不言而喻的,当时这是一个相当激进的想法。但另一种选择是接受上帝通过地球领袖的工作,随着识字率的提高和腐败统治者的知识增长,这种观点似乎越来越幼稚。上帝作为一个宇宙主权者的开明观点,给予每个人不需要地球中间人的相同基本权利,仍然将人权置于权力观念之上 – 但至少它没有把权力交给地上的统治者手中。

美国芝加哥大学HRM Essay代写:人权的定义

The idea behind human rights is much older, and it’s much harder to trace. Rights declarations such as the Magna Carta have historically taken the form of a benevolent monarch granting rights to his or her subjects. This idea progressed in a Western cultural context toward the idea that God is the ultimate monarch and God grants rights that all earthly leaders should respect. This was the philosophical basis of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, which begins: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Far from self-evident, this was a fairly radical idea at the time. But the alternative was to accept that God works through earthly leaders, a view that seemed increasingly naive as literacy rates increased and knowledge of corrupt rulers grew. The enlightened view of God as a cosmic sovereign who grants the same basic rights to everyone with no need for earthly intermediaries still anchored human rights to the idea of power — but at least it didn’t place the power in the hands of earthly rulers.

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