During the “discovery” or fact-finding phase of a trial, attorneys use subpoenas to gather evidence or witness statements. Subpoenas compel individuals to provide evidence or testimony, which makes them extremely valuable tools for the justice system. Placing enforceable, legal requirements on the gathering of evidence helps both sides in a legal case gather as much evidence as possible to help the judge or jury reach a fair verdict. The two types of subpoenas are used for different reasons and to gain different types of information. For example, a subpoena duces tecum might compel a business to turn over records concerning an employee suspected of a crime. On the other hand, a subpoena ad testificandum might order someone to appear in court and testify about a suspect’s location on the night that a crime occurred. Anyone who fails to respond to a subpoena is held in contempt of court. Depending on the state, that individual may remain in contempt until they fulfill the terms of the subpoena. A contempt charge can result in fines or jail time. There are two types of contempt: Civil contempt: An individual purposefully avoids the actions listed on the subpoena in an attempt to hinder the legal procedure. Criminal contempt: An individual meaningfully disrupts the court, sometimes by being disrespectful while court is in session.