Derald Wing Sue和他的同事已经将微攻击组织为三类:微攻击、微侮辱和微残废。微侵袭。微侵袭是最明显的微侵袭。对于微攻击,实施微攻击的人是有意地行动,并且知道他们的行为可能是有害的。例如,使用贬义词来指代有色人种是一种微攻击。微侮辱。微侮辱比微攻击更微妙,但是仍然对边缘化群体成员产生有害影响。例如,Sue和他的同事写道,微侮辱可能包括暗示一个妇女或有色人种由于平权行动而得到工作的评论。微失效。微失效是指否认被边缘化群体成员经历的评论和行为。一种常见的微攻击包括坚持偏见不再是社会问题:Sue和他的同事写道,微残废可能包括告诉有色人种他们对所发表的种族主义言论“过于敏感”。除了由特定人实施的微攻击之外,人们还可以经历环境微攻击。当物理或社会环境中的某些东西向边缘化群体的成员传达负面信息时,就会发生环境微侵犯。例如,苏写道,在电影和媒体中对有色人种的表现(或缺乏表现)可能构成一种微侵犯;例如,如果一个电视节目只包括白人角色,这将是一种环境微侵犯。为了记录有色人种经历的微攻击类型,Kiyun Kim完成了一系列摄影,其中人们举着标牌,举着他们听到的微攻击的例子。一位参与者举起一块牌子,上面写着有人问她:“不,你到底来自哪里?”另一个人说,他被问及他的种族和民族背景:“那么,你是什么?”他写在他的牌子上。虽然经常在种族和种族的背景下研究微侵略,但是微侵略可以发生在任何边缘化群体。苏指出,微攻击可以针对边缘化群体的任何成员;例如,微攻击可以针对妇女、残疾人和LGBTQ社区。苏解释说,女性可能会受到基于性别的各种微攻击。他指出,女人可能因为过于自信而受到批评,而男人可能因为同样的行为而受到表扬。他还举了一个例子,一个在医院工作的妇女可能被假定为一名护士,而实际上她是一名医生(这确实发生在女医生身上)。为了记录针对LGBTQ社区的微型侵犯行为,凯文·纳达尔(纽约城市大学约翰·杰伊刑事司法学院的心理学家)拍下了人们举着他们听到的微型侵犯标志的照片。该项目的一位参与者报告说自己遭遇了微残废,他写道,有人告诉他,“我不是恐同性恋,你只是太敏感了。”该项目的其他参与者报告说被问到不适当的个人问题或者让人们简单地假设他们是异性恋关系。微侵袭对心理健康的影响. 虽然微攻击可能比其他类型的歧视更微妙,但研究人员认为,微攻击可能随着时间的推移产生累积效应,从而影响心理健康。微攻击的模糊和微妙的性质使它们对受害者尤其沮丧,因为他们可能不确定如何应对。研究人员还提出,经历微攻击会导致挫折感、自我怀疑以及较低的心理健康。在一项研究中,纳达尔和他的同事研究了经历微攻击与心理健康之间的关系。研究人员要求506名参与者指出他们在过去六个月中是否经历过不同的微攻击。此外,参加者完成了一项评估心理健康的调查。研究人员发现,经历过更多微攻击的参与者表现出更高的抑郁水平和更低的积极情绪。重要的是,Sue和他的同事写道,微攻击可能使心理治疗对于边缘化群体的成员更加复杂。治疗师在与处于边缘化群体中的客户交谈时可能无意中发生微创,这会削弱治疗师和客户之间的治疗关系。因此,Sue和他的同事解释说,对于治疗师来说,重要的是检查他们自己的偏见,以避免在治疗期间进行微创治疗。

新西兰奥克兰大学论文代写:种族主义言论

Derald Wing Sue and his colleagues have organized micro-attacks into three categories: micro-attacks, micro-insults and micro-disabilities. Micro invasion. Micro-invasion is the most obvious micro-invasion. For micro-attacks, the person who carries out the micro-attacks acts intentionally and knows that their actions may be harmful. For example, using derogatory terms to refer to people of color is a kind of micro-attack. Slight insult. Micro-insults are more subtle than micro-attacks, but they still have harmful effects on members of marginalized groups. For example, Sue and his colleagues wrote that minor insults may include comments suggesting that a woman or a coloured person gets a job because of affirmative action. Micro failure. Micro-invalidation refers to the denial of comments and actions experienced by members of marginalized groups. A common micro-attack involves insisting that prejudice is no longer a social problem: Sue and his colleagues write that micro-disability may include telling people of color that they are “too sensitive” to racist statements made. In addition to micro-attacks by specific people, people can also experience environmental micro-attacks. When something in the physical or social environment conveys negative information to members of marginalized groups, micro-environmental violations occur. For example, Su writes that the performance (or lack of performance) of colored people in movies and media may constitute a kind of micro-aggression; for example, if a TV program only includes white characters, it will be an environmental micro-aggression. To record the types of micro-attacks experienced by colored people, Kiyun Kim completed a series of photographs in which people held signs and cited examples of micro-attacks they heard. A participant raised a sign that said, “No, where on earth are you from?” Another said he was asked about his race and ethnic background: “So, what are you?” He wrote it on his sign. Although micro-aggression is often studied in the context of race and ethnicity, micro-aggression can occur in any marginalized group. Su pointed out that micro-attacks could target any member of marginalized groups; for example, micro-attacks could target women, disabled persons and LGBTQ communities. Su explained that women may be subjected to various gender-based micro-attacks. He points out that women may be criticized for being overconfident, while men may be praised for doing the same. He also cited an example where a woman working in a hospital might be assumed to be a nurse, but in fact she was a doctor (which did happen to a female doctor). Kevin Nadal (a psychologist at the John Jay School of Criminal Justice, City University of New York) took pictures of people holding up the signs of micro-aggression they heard in order to record micro-aggression against LGBTQ communities. One participant in the project reported that he had suffered minor disabilities, and he wrote that someone told him, “I’m not homophobic, you’re just too sensitive.” Other participants in the project reported being asked inappropriate personal questions or asked people to simply assume they were heterosexual. The impact of micro-aggression on mental health. Although micro-aggression may be more subtle than other types of discrimination, researchers believe that micro-aggression may have cumulative effects over time, thereby affecting mental health. The ambiguous and subtle nature of micro-attacks makes them particularly frustrated with the victims, who may not be sure how to deal with them. Researchers also suggest that experiencing micro-attacks can lead to frustration, self-doubt and lower mental health. In one study, Nadal and his colleagues studied the relationship between experiencing micro-aggression and mental health. The researchers asked 506 participants to indicate whether they had experienced different micro-attacks in the past six months. In addition, participants completed a survey to assess mental health. Researchers found that participants who experienced more micro-attacks showed higher levels of depression and lower positive emotions. Importantly, Sue and his colleagues wrote that micro-attacks may complicate psychotherapy for members of marginalized groups. Therapists may inadvertently experience minimal invasiveness when talking to clients in marginalized groups, which weakens the therapeutic relationship between therapists and clients. So Sue and his colleagues explained that it was important for therapists to examine their own biases to avoid minimally invasive treatment during treatment.

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