许多圣诞节传统都搬到了新年,这是自那时以来俄罗斯最受欢迎的节日。尽管如此,俄罗斯仍然保留着丰富的圣诞节传统,包括圣诞节前夕的算命,唱圣诞颂歌(колядки,发音为kaLYADky),并严格禁食,直到圣诞节前夜的第一颗星出现在天空中。传统上,俄罗斯圣诞节庆祝活动在圣诞节前夕开始,名为Сочельник(saCHYELnik)。 Сочельник这个名字来自сочиво(SOHchiva)这个词,这是一种由谷物(通常是小麦),种子,坚果,蜂蜜和有时干果制成的特殊膳食。这顿饭,也被称为кутья(kooTYA),意味着严格的耶稣诞生快速的结束,持续了40天。在Сочельник的夜晚,在傍晚的天空中看到第一颗恒星时,观察到了耶稣降生节,以象征伯利恒之星的出现,它激发并带领三位智者到耶稣在耶路撒冷的家中。俄罗斯圣诞节与家人共度,被认为是宽恕和爱的时刻。为亲人提供周到的礼物,房屋装饰着天使,星星和耶稣诞生的场景。许多俄罗斯人在平安夜参加圣诞节。天黑之后,一旦禁食,家人就坐下来庆祝一顿饭。传统上,提供各种腌制食品,包括小黄瓜,腌制蘑菇,酸菜和腌苹果。其他传统菜肴包括馅饼肉,蘑菇,鱼或蔬菜馅料。还供应一种叫做сбитень(ZBEEtyn’)的饮料,用香料和蜂蜜制成。 (сбитень曾经是俄罗斯最受欢迎的饮料,在茶叶接管之前。)今天,俄罗斯圣诞节的食物既折衷又多变,一些家庭遵循传统,其他人选择完全不同的菜肴。许多俄罗斯人不遵循禁食或参加教会,但仍然庆祝圣诞节,将节日视为对爱,接纳和宽容的庆祝。算命是一种始于俄罗斯前基督教时代的传统(并不被俄罗斯东正教会所宽恕)。传统上,算命是由年轻的未婚女性进行的,她们聚集在一所房子或一个баня(BAnya) – 一个俄罗斯桑拿浴室。女人们只穿着睡衣,头发松散。已婚妇女和男子不得参加算命仪式。相反,年长的女性表演заговоры(zagaVOry):基于单词的仪式旨在为家庭带来繁荣。

英国兰卡斯特大学文化论文代写:圣诞节传统

Many Christmas traditions have moved to the New Year, the most popular holiday in Russia since then. Despite this, Russia still retains a rich Christmas tradition, including fortune telling on Christmas Eve, singing Christmas carols (колядки, pronounced kaLYADky), and strictly fasting until the first star on Christmas Eve appears in the sky. . Traditionally, the Russian Christmas celebration began on Christmas Eve and was named Сочельник (saCHYELnik). The name Сочельник comes from the word сочиво (SOHchiva), a special diet made from grains (usually wheat), seeds, nuts, honey and sometimes dried fruit. This meal, also known as кутья (kooTYA), means the rigorous end of the birth of Jesus, which lasted for 40 days. On the night of Сочельник, when the first star was seen in the evening sky, the Nativity Day was observed to symbolize the appearance of the star of Bethlehem, which inspired and led the three wise men to Jesus’ home in Jerusalem. Russian Christmas is spent with family and is considered a time of forgiveness and love. Offering thoughtful gifts for loved ones, the house is decorated with angels, stars and scenes of the birth of Jesus. Many Russians participate in Christmas on Christmas Eve. After dark, once fasted, the family sat down to celebrate a meal. Traditionally, a variety of preserved foods are available, including gherkins, pickled mushrooms, sauerkraut and pickled apples. Other traditional dishes include pie meat, mushrooms, fish or vegetable fillings. A drink called сбитень (ZBEEtyn’) is also available, made with spices and honey. (сбитень used to be the most popular drink in Russia before the tea was taken over.) Today, Russian Christmas food is both eclectic and changeable, some families follow tradition, others choose completely different dishes. Many Russians do not follow fasting or attending churches, but still celebrate Christmas and see the festival as a celebration of love, acceptance and tolerance. Fortune telling is a tradition that began in the pre-Christian era of Russia (not forgiven by the Russian Orthodox Church). Traditionally, fortune telling is carried out by young unmarried women who gather in a house or a баня (BAnya) – a Russian sauna. Women are only wearing pajamas and their hair is loose. Married women and men are not allowed to participate in fortune-telling ceremonies. Instead, older women perform заговоры (zagaVOry): word-based rituals are designed to bring prosperity to the family.

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