近端发展区是学习者掌握的东西与他们可以通过支持和帮助掌握的东西之间的差距。这一概念在教育心理学中具有很大的影响力,最初由俄罗斯心理学家Lev Vygotsky在20世纪30年代引入。对教育和学习过程感兴趣的Lev Vygotsky认为标准化测试不足以衡量孩子进一步学习的准备程度。他认为,标准化测试可以衡量孩子目前的独立知识,同时忽略孩子成功学习新材料的潜在能力。维果茨基认识到,随着孩子的成熟,一定程度的学习会自动发生,这是由像皮亚杰这样的发展心理学家所倡导的观念。然而,维果茨基还认为,为了进一步推进学习,儿童必须与“更有知识的人”进行社交互动。这些知识渊博的其他人,如父母和老师,向孩子们介绍他们的文化工具和技能,如写作,数学和科学。维果茨基在年轻时去世,然后才能完全发展他的理论,他的作品在他去世后的几年里并没有从他的祖国俄语翻译过来。然而,今天,维果茨基的思想在教育研究中尤为重要 – 尤其是教学过程。

英国伦敦大学学院教育Essay代写:标准化测试

The near-end development zone is the gap between what the learner has and what they can support through support and help. This concept has great influence in educational psychology and was first introduced by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky in the 1930s. Lev Vygotsky, interested in the education and learning process, believes that standardized testing is not enough to gauge the child’s readiness for further study. He believes that standardized tests can measure a child’s current independent knowledge while ignoring the child’s potential to successfully learn new materials. Vygotsky realized that a certain degree of learning will happen automatically as the child matures, a concept advocated by developmental psychologists like Piaget. However, Vygotsky also believes that in order to further advance learning, children must engage in social interaction with “more knowledgeable people”. These knowledgeable others, such as parents and teachers, introduce children to their cultural tools and skills such as writing, math and science. Vygotsky died at a young age before he could fully develop his theory. His work was not translated from his native Russian in the years after his death. Today, however, Vygotsky’s ideas are particularly important in educational research – especially the teaching process.

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