功能主义解释社会的每个部分如何有助于整个社会的稳定。社会不仅仅是各部分的总和,而是社会的每个部分都对整个社会的稳定起作用。Durkheim实际上把社会想象成一个有机体,就像在一个有机体中一样,每个组成部分都发挥着必要的作用,但是没有一个能够单独发挥作用,一个人经历危机或失败,其他组成部分必须以某种方式适应以填补空白。在功能主义理论中,社会的不同部分主要由社会制度组成,每个社会制度都是为满足不同的需要而设计的,每个社会制度对社会的形式和形状都有特定的影响。各部分相互依存。社会学界定的核心制度包括家庭、政府、经济、媒体、教育和宗教,这些制度对于理解这一理论具有重要意义。根据功能主义,一个制度之所以存在,是因为它在社会的运行中起着至关重要的作用。如果它不再扮演一个角色,一个机构就会消亡。当新的需求发展或出现时,将创建新的机构来满足它们。让我们考虑一些核心机构之间的关系和功能。在大多数社会中,政府或州为家庭子女提供教育,而家庭子女又交纳国家赖以维持其运转的税款。这个家庭依靠学校帮助孩子长大后找到好工作,以便他们能够养活和养活自己的家庭。在这个过程中,孩子们成为守法的纳税公民,他们反过来支持国家。从功能主义的角度来看,如果一切顺利,社会的各个部分就会产生秩序、稳定和生产力。如果一切都不顺利,那么社会的各个部分必须适应生产新形式的秩序、稳定和生产力。功能主义强调社会存在的共识和秩序,强调社会稳定和公共价值观。从这个角度来看,系统内的混乱,例如不正常的行为,会导致改变,因为社会成分必须调整以实现稳定。当系统的一个部分不工作或功能失调时,它影响所有其他部分,并产生社会问题,从而导致社会变化。功能主义观点在20世纪40年代和50年代在美国社会学家中得到了最大的普及。欧洲功能主义者最初致力于解释社会秩序的内部运作,而美国功能主义者则致力于发现人类行为的功能。在这些美国功能主义社会学家中,罗伯特·K·默顿把人的功能分为两类:有意的和明显的显性功能和无意的和不明显的潜在功能。例如,参加教堂或犹太教堂的明显功能是作为宗教团体的一部分进行崇拜,但其潜在功能可能是帮助成员学会区分个人价值和制度价值。具有常识,明显的功能变得显而易见。然而,潜能的作用并不一定如此,潜能的作用往往需要社会学方法来揭示。

英国圣安德鲁斯大学社会学Assignment代写: 功能主义

Functionalism explains how each part of society contributes to the stability of society as a whole. Society is not only the sum of all parts, but each part of society plays a role in the stability of the whole society. Durkheim actually imagines society as an organism. Like an organism, each component plays a necessary role, but none of them can play a role alone. One person experiences crisis or failure, and the other components must adapt in some way to fill the gap. In the theory of functionalism, different parts of society are mainly composed of social systems. Each social system is designed to meet different needs. Each social system has a specific impact on the form and shape of society. The parts are interdependent. The core systems defined by sociology include family, government, economy, media, education and religion, which are of great significance for understanding this theory. According to functionalism, a system exists because it plays a vital role in the operation of society. If it no longer plays a role, an institution will perish. When new needs develop or emerge, new institutions will be created to meet them. Let’s consider the relationships and functions of some core institutions. In most societies, the government or state provides education for family children, who in turn pay taxes on which the state maintains its functioning. The family relies on schools to help children find good jobs when they grow up so that they can support and support their families. In the process, children become law-abiding taxpayers, who in turn support the country. From the perspective of functionalism, if everything goes smoothly, all parts of society will produce order, stability and productivity. If everything goes wrong, then all parts of society must adapt to the order, stability and productivity of the new forms of production. Functionalism emphasizes the consensus and order of social existence, social stability and public values. From this point of view, chaos within the system, such as abnormal behavior, can lead to change, because social components must be adjusted to achieve stability. When one part of the system does not work or is dysfunctional, it affects all other parts and causes social problems, leading to social change. The functionalist view gained the greatest popularity among American sociologists in the 1940s and 1950s. European functionalists initially tried to explain the internal operation of social order, while American functionalists tried to discover the function of human behavior. Among these American functionalist sociologists, Robert K. Merton classifies human functions into two categories: intentional and obvious dominant functions and unintentional and indistinct potential functions. For example, the obvious function of attending a church or synagogue is to worship as part of a religious community, but its potential function may be to help members learn to distinguish between personal and institutional values. With common sense, obvious functions become apparent. However, the role of potential is not necessarily so. The role of potential often needs sociological methods to reveal.

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